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Test 1

Homeostasis is what? the goal of physiological regulation and the key to survival in a changing environment.
Physiology is the study of what? function of anatomical structures, individual, and cooperative functions.
What is another name for gross anatomy? macroscopic anatomy
Systemic anatomy is what? organ systems
Developmental anatomy is what? from conception to death
Regional anatomy is what? body areas
Clinical anatomy is what? medical specialities
Microscopic anatomy examines what? cells and molecules
Cytology is the study of what? cells and their structures
Histology is the study of what? tissues and their structures
Cell physiology is what? processes within and between cells
Organ physiology is what? functions of specific organs
Systemic physiology is what? functions of an organ system
Pathological physiology is what? effects of diseases
Structure defines what? function
Atoms are the smallest what? chemical units
Molecules are a group of what? atoms working together
Cells are what? a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together
A tissue is what? a group of similar cells working together
A organ is what? a group of different tissues working together
An organ system is what? a group of organ working together
Humans have how many organ systems? 11
A human is what? an organism
What are the organ systems? (12) Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Male Reproductive, & Female Reproductive.
What are integumentary's major organs? skin, hair, sweat glands, and nails.
What is the function of the integumentary system? protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temp., and provides sensory information.
What are skeletal system's major organs? bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, and bone marrow.
What is the function of the skeletal system? provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other materials, and forms blood cells.
What are the muscular system's major organs? skeletal muscles and associated tendons
What is the function of the muscular system? provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, and generates heat that maintains body temp.
What are the nervous system's major organs? brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs.
What is the function of the nervous system? directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organs, and provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.
What are the endocrine system's major organs? pituitary gland, pancreas, gonads, thyroid gland, adrenal gland.
What is the function of the endocrine system? directs long-term changes in activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, and controls many structural and functional changes during development.
What are the major organs of the cardiovascular system? heart, blood, and blood vessels.
What is the function of the cardiovascular system? distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. AND distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature.
What are the major organs of the lymphatic system? spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils.
What is the function of the lymphatic system? defends against infection and disease AND returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream.
What are the major organs of respiratory system? nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli.
What is the function of the respiratory system? delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs), provides oxygen to bloodstream, removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream, and produces sounds for communication.
What are the major organs of the digestive system? teeth, tongue, pharynx, stomach, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
What is the function of the digestive system? processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients, and stores energy reserves.
What are the major organs of the urinary system? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
What is the function of the urinary system? excretes waste products from blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, and regulates blood ion concentration and pH.
What are the major organs of the male reproductive system? testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and scrotum.
What is the function of the male reproductive system? produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids, and hormones AND sexual intercourse.
What are the major organs of the female reproductive system? ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, and mammary glands.
What is the function of the female reproductive system? produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones, supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, provides milk to nourish newborn infant, and sexual intercourse.
Homeostasis is what? all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment.
Autoregulation (intrinsic) is what? automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change.
Extrinsic regulation is what? responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems.
Functions of body cavities? protects organs from accidental shocks and permit changes in size and shape of internal organs.
Serous membranes line what? body cavities and cover organs.
The serous membrane contains two layers what are they? parietal layer and visceral layer.
The parietal layer of the serous membrane lines what? cavities.
The visceral layer of the serous membrane covers what? organs.
The heart is located where? within the pericardial cavity.
What are the four types of tissue? epithelial, connective, muscle, neural tissue.
Parietal peritoneum lines what? the internal body wall.
Visceral peritoneum covers what? the organs.
Epithelial tissue cover and lines what? it covers exposed surfaces and lines internal passageways.
What does epithelial tissue form? glands.
Epithelial tissue has two types of cells what are they? epithelial and gland cells.
Connective tissue fills what? internal spaces.
Connective tissue does what? transports materials and stores energy.
Muscle tissue is specialized for? contraction.
Muscle tissue consists of what muscles? skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and walls of hollow organs.
Neural tissue carries what? electrical signals from one part of the body to another.
Glands are structures that produce what? secretions.
What are the characters of epithelia? cellularity, polarity, attachment, avascularity, and regeneration.
Apical is top or bottom layer? top
Basal is the top or bottom layer? bottom
What are the functions of epithelial tissue? provide physical protection, control permeability, provide sensation, produce secretions
Microvilli do what? increase absorption or secretion.
Cilia do what? move fuild
Intercellular connections do what? support and communicate through gap junctions.
CAMs and hyaluronan are? the concrete that holds the cells (membranes) together.
What are the different kinds of junctions? tight, gap, and desmosomes.
Tight junctions are between what? two plasma membranes.
Tight junctions prevents what? passage of water and solutes.
Tight junctions isolate what? wastes in the lumen.
Tight junction has what? a adhesion belt that attaches to terminal web.
Gap junctions allow what? rapid communication.
Gap junctions are held together by what? channel proteins
Gap junctions allow what to pass? ions.
Gap junctions coordinate what? contractions in heart muscle.
Desmosomes have two types what are they? Spot and hemidesmosomes.
Spot desmosomes tie what together? cells.
Spot desmosomes allow what? bending and twisting.
Hemidesmosomes attach cells to what? to the basal lamina.
Basement membrane has two layers what are they? clear layer and dense layer.
Clear layer is also called what? lamina lucida.
Dense layer is also called what? lamina densa.
What are the classes of epithelia? shape and layers.
Shapes of epithelia cells? Squamous, cuboidal, columnar.
Layers of epithelia cells? simple and stratified.
Simple epithelium is how many layers? single layer of cells.
Stratified epithelium is how many layers? several layers of cells.
Squamous epithelia deals with what? transport or diffusion.
Cuboidal epithelia deals with what? filtration.
Columnar epithelia is what? sturdy.
What are the subparts of squamous epithelia? simple squamous epithelium, mesothelium, endothelium, and stratified squamous epithelium.
Simple squamous epithelium does what? absorption and diffusion.
Mesothelium lines what? body cavities.
Endothelium lines what? heart and blood vessels.
The stratified squamous epithelium protects against what? attacks.
What are the subparts of cuboidal epithelia? simple cuboidal epithelium and stratified cuboidal epithelia.
Simple cuboidal epithelium does what? secretion and absorption.
Stratified cuboidal epithelia is what? sweat ducts and mammary ducts.
What are the subparts of columnar epithelia? simple columnar epithelium, pseudostratified epithelium, and stratified columnar epithelium.
Simple columnar epithelium does what? secretion and absorption.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium deals with what? cilia movement.
Stratified columnar epithelium does what? protection.
Glandular Epithelia have two parts what are they? endocrine and exocrine glands.
Endocrine glands release what? hormones.
Endocrine glands have no what? ducts.
Endocrine glands are highly what? vascular.
Exocrine glands produce what? secretions.
Exocrine glands produce secretions through what? ducts.
What are the modes of secretions? merocrine, apocrine, holocrine secretions.
Goblet cells are what? to lubricate; to trap pathogens and particles.
Cilia are what? hair like extensions of their apical surface.
Cilia are capable of what? of pulsatile beating.
In cilia, the wafting effect requires what? mucus.
Merocrine secretion are produced in what? in golgi apparatus.
Merocrine secretion are released by what? vesicles (exocytosis).
An example of merocrine secretion is what? sweat glands.
Apocrine secretion are produced in what? the golgi apparatus.
Apocrine secretion are released by what? shedding cytoplasm.
Merocrine secretion the cell is what? the whole cell is intact.
An example of apocrine secretion is what? mammary glands.
In merocrine secretion the cell is what? parts of the cell is lost in the apical surface.
Holocrine secretion is released by what? cells bursting, killing gland cells.
In the holocrine secretion the gland cells are replaced with what? stem cells.
An example of holocrine secretion is what? sebaceous glands.
In the holocrine secretion the cell is what? the whole cell is destroyed.
The holocrine secretion secretes what? oily solutions.
What are the types of secretions? serous glands, mucous glands, and mixed exocrine glands.
Serous glands are what? watery secretions.
Watery secretions are what? sweat and tears.
Mucous glands secrete what? mucins.
Mixed exocrine glands are? both serous and mucous.
Relationship between ducts and glandular areas are what? branched; several secretory areas sharing one duct.
Glands are? made a liquid, secreted it, and it travels through a duct.
Duct is what? a structure; doesn't do anything.
What are the characteristics of connective tissue? specialized cells, solid extracellular protein fibers, and fluid extracellular ground substance.
What makes up the matrix? the extracellular components of connective tissue (fibers and ground substance).
What are the functions of connective tissue? establishing a structural framework for the body, transporting fluids and dissolved materials (ions), protecting organs, storing energy, and defending the body from invading microorganisms.
What are the three classifications of connective tissue? connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.
Connective tissue proper do what? connect and protect.
Fluid connective tissues do what? transport.
Supporting connective tissues have what? structural strength (bones and cartilage).
What are the subparts of connective tissue proper? loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue.
Loose connective tissue are what? more ground substance and have fewer fibers.
An example of loose connective tissue is what? fat.
Dense connective tissue has what? more fibers and less ground substance.
An example of dense connective tissue is what? tendons.
What are some of the cell populations of connective tissue proper? Fibroblasts, fibrocyte, adipocyte, mesenchymal cells, and melanocytes.
What are the connective tissue fibers? collagen, reticular, and elastic fibers.
All the connective tissue fibers are secreted by what? fibroblasts.
An example of collagen fibers are? tendons and ligaments.
Reticular fibers are what? a network of interwoven fibers (stroma).
Reticular fibers stabilize what? functional cells and structure.
An example of reticular fibers are what? sheaths around organs.
Elastic fibers contain what? elastin.
An example of elastic fibers are what? elastic ligaments of vertebrae.
Ground substance fill spaces where? between cells.
Ground substance does what? slows down movement.
Embryonic connective tissue is not found in? adults.
What are the three types of loose connective tissue in adults? areolar, adipose, reticular.
Loose connective tissues are? the packing materials of the body.
Areolar tissue holds what? blood vessels and capillary beds.
What are the two types of adipose tissue? white and brown fat.
White fat is only found in who? adults.
Brown fat is only found in who? infants and babies.
White fat stores what and absorbs what? stores fat and absorbs shock.
White fat slows down what? heat loss (insulation).
Brown fat is more? vascularized.
Where does brown fat absorb energy from? surrounding tissues.
When do adipocytes not divide? in adults.
Reticular tissue provides what? support.
What are the reticular organs? spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow.
What are the three types of dense connective tissue? dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, and elastic tissue.
Dense regular connective tissue are tightly packed and? parallel collagen fibers.
Tendons attach what to what? muscles to bones.
Ligaments connect what to what and do what? bone to bone and stabilize organs.
Aponeuoses attach in what? sheets to large, flat muscles.
Dense irregular connective tissue forms what? capsules around some organs such as the liver and kidneys.
Dense irregular connective tissue can be found where? around cartilages and bones.
Elastic tissue is what? dense regular connective tissue dominated by elastic fibers.
Fluid connective tissues carry specific cell types what are they? red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
What are the fluid elements of connective tissues? plasma, interstitial fluid, and lymph.
Sharks don't get cancer because? they are all cartilage.
Proteoglycan are derived from where? chondroitin sulfates.
Condrocytes (cartilage cells) are surrounded by what? lacunae.
Condrocytes produce what? antiangiogensis factor.
Chondroblasts are what? baby cartilage cells.
Interstitial growth is for who? children.
Appositional growth is for who and does what? adolescents and repairs.
What are types of cartilages? hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage.
Hyaline cartilage reduces what? friction between bones.
Hyaline cartilage is found in what? synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea.
Elastic cartilage is what? supportive but bends easily.
Elastic cartilage is found in what? external ear and epiglottis.
Fibrocartilage limits what? movement.
Fibrocartilage prevents what? bone-to-bone contact.
Fibrocartilage pads what? knee joints.
Fibrocartilage is found where? between pubic bones and intervertebral dics.
What are the four types of membranes? mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial membranes.
Mucous membranes are found where? in the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
Mucous membranes line what? passageways that have external connections.
Lamina propria is what? areolar tissue.
Serous membranes line what? cavities not open to the outside.
Serous membranes have what to reduce friction? fluid transudate.
What are the three serous membranes? pleura, peritoneum, pericardium.
Pleura covers what? lungs.
Peritoneum covers what? abdominal organs.
Pericardium covers what? the heart.
Synovial membranes protect what? the ends of bones.
Fascia is what? the body's framework of connective tissue.
What are the three types of fasciae? Superficial, deep, and subserous.
The integument system is what? the largest system in the body.
The integument system is made up of two parts what are they? cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
What are the two components of the cutaneous membrane? outer epidermis and inner dermis.
Accessory structures originate from where? the dermis.
Hypodermis is below what? the dermis.
What are the functions of the skin? protection of underlying tissues and organs, excretion of salts/water/organic wastes, maintenance of body temperature, production of melanin, production of keratin, synthesis of vitamin D, storage of lipids, and detection of touch/pressure/pain/and temp.
What are the cells of the epidermis (strata)? keratinocytes.
What are the five structures of the epidermis? stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, straum lucidum, and stratum corneum.
The stratum basale is attached to what? basement membrane by hemidesmosomes.
The stratum basale forms what? epidermal ridges (fingerprints)
Dermal papillae is what? tiny mounds.
Dermal papillae do what? increase the area of basement membrane and strengthen attachment between epidermis and dermis.
Merkel cells are what kind of cells? sensory cells.
What are the specialized cells of stratum basale? merkel and melanocytes.
Merkel cells are found where? in hairless skin.
Stratum Granulosum: the cells do what in this layer? they die.
Keratin is where and helps with what? covers over the cell and helps with water proofing.
The stratum lucidum is only found where? in thick skin.
The stratum lucidum is also called? the clear layer.
The stratum corneum is also called what? the horn layer.
Stratum corneum is the? thickest layer.
What is a hallmark feature in the stratum corneum? keratinization.
Sensible perspiation is when you? sense it.
Insensible perspiration is what? interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum.
Melanin is the? darker pigment.
What are the two pigments that influences skin color? carotene and melanin.
Carotene is what color pigment? orange-yellow pigment.
Carotene accumulates where? in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis.
Carotene helps with what? photoreceptors in the eye.
Melanin is what color pigment? yellow-brown or black pigment.
Melanin is produced by what? melanocytes in stratum basale.
Melanin are stored where? in transport vesicles.
Melanin is transferred to what? keratinocytes.
Melanin are located just above what? the basement membrane.
The difference in color is how productive what is? melanin is.
What are the function of melanocytes? protects skin from sun damage.
UV radiation causes what? DNA mutations and burns that lead to cancer and wrinkles.
What is MSH? melanocyte stimulating hormone.
Pituitary tumor is when you have what? excess MSH.
Addison's disease is a disease of what? the pituitary gland.
Addison's disease affects the skin how? darkens it.
Vitiligo is what? loss of melanocytes and loss of color.
Calcitriol helps absorb what? calcium.
Insufficient vitamin D can cause what? rickets.
Epidermal cells produce what? cholecalciferol.
What are the functions of epidermal growth factor (EGF)? promotes division of stem cells, accelerates keratin production, stimulates epidermal repair, and stimulates glandular secretion.
What are the two components of the dermis layer? outer papillary layer and deep reticular layer.
Where the dermis located? between the epidermis and subcutaneous layer.
The papillary layer consists of what? areolar tissue.
Papillary layer contains what? capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons.
Reticular layer consists of what? dense irregular connective tissue.
Reticular layer contains what? larger blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers, collagen, and elastic fibers.
Dermatitis is what? inflammation of the papillary layer.
What does dermatitis happen in the papillary layer? because of the blood supply.
What is dermatitis caused by? infection, radiation, mechanical irritation, or chemicals.
What is skin turgor? properties of flexibility and resilience "due to hydration".
Sagging and wrinkles are caused by what? dehydration, age, hormonal changes, and UV exposure.
The hypodermis layer is made up of what? elastic areolar and adipose tissue.
What are the accessory organs? hair, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and nails.
What are the two types of sweat glands? apocrine glands and merocrine glands.
Created by: danreid
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