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Anatomy - Ch.1

Anatomy - Chapter 1 - Body Organization

Define Human anatomy structure of the human body
Define Human physiology function of anatomical structures
_____ are composed of organ systems Organisms
_____ are composed of organs Organ systems
_____ are composed of tissues Organs
_____ are composed of cells Tissues
_____ are composed (in part) of organelles Cells
the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life cells
True or False Nothing simpler than a cell is considered alive True
A tissue is a... ... mass/layer of similar cells that performs a specific function
An organ is... ...two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function. definite anatomical boundaries and are visibly distinguishable from adjacent structures
An organ system is a... ...group of organs that carry out a basic function of the organism
The human body has how many systems? 11
Gross Anatomy the study of the structure visible to the naked eye
systematic anatomy study one organ system at a time
regional anatomy multiple organ systems in a given region perspective typically taught at medical schools
Name 3 organs that belong to more than one organ system Male urethra, pharynx, and mammary glands
Organ systems are classified by what? Principal functions
Integumentary System External support and protection
Skeletal System Support and framework Production of blood cells
Muscular System Body movement, posture support, and heat production
Nervous System Regulation of all body activities
Endocrine System Secretes hormones
Circulatory System Transports blood, removes metabolic waste
Lymphatic System Body immunity, and tissue drainage
Respiratory System Gas exchange
Digestive System Breakdown and absorption of food
Urinary System Filters blood, and removal of metabolic waste
Reproductive System Production of sex cells
Eponyms (=tombstone names) - terms coined from the names of people
About __% of today’s medical terms are formed primarily from about 1,200 Greek and Latin roots 90%
Anatomical position is a stance in which a person: stands erect with feet flat on the floor arms at sides palms, face and eyes facing forward
sagittal plane (divides into right and left) portions
midsagittal plane (equal right and left halves)
frontal plane (divides into anterior and posterior portions)
supine face up or forward
prone aces down or rearward
Two major regions Axial and Appendicular
Axial Region Head, Cervical region (neck),and trunk
Appendicular Region Upper and lower limbs
Axial - Thoracic Region Pectoral, Sternal, Acromial, Axillary, Vertebral, and Scapular
Axial - Abdominal Region Umbilical and Lumbar
Axial - Pelvic Region Pubic, Inguinal, Sacral, Gluteal, and Perineal
Appendicular - Upper Limb Brachium, cubital, antebrachium, carpus, manus, palmar surface, dorsum, digits
Appendicular - Lower Limb Femoral (thigh), Crus (Crural), popliteal, patellar, tarsus, pes, dorsum, plantar surface, digits
Anterior Toward the front of the body
Toward the front of the body anterior
Posterior Toward the back of the body
Toward the back of the body Posterior
Superior above
above superior
Inferior below
below inferior
cephalic toward the head or superior end
rostral toward the forehead or nose
caudal toward the tail
medial toward the midline of the body
Lateral away from the midline
Proximal closer to the point of attachment or origin
distal Farther from the point of origin
Deep Farther from the surface
Superficial Close to the surface
Oblique Angle cuts
Created by: sinteque