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Colon, Rectum SG

Colon, Rectum and Levator Ani

True or False: As we go from right to left colon more water is being reabsorbed True
Where is vitamin K produced in our body? In our small intestine
What can cause you to become vitamin K deficient? Taking antibodies
What is vitamin K essential for coagulation in pathways
What is most intestinal gas? Swallowed air
Describe the funcion of inner and outer layer of small intestine Inner layer acts to pinch the intestine off. Outer longitudinal layer propels things in one direction
What artery supplies the proximal part of the small intestine? The superior mesenteric artery
True or False: The distal intestine, the vasa recta become shorter and arcades become more numerus True
Is the longitudinal layer of the large intestine complete cirumferntially? No it rolls up into tenia
What are the indentations called of the large intestine? Haustral markings
What are the appendices epiploica? Little fingers of fat. Come off at a right angle to the wall of the large intestine. If one twist and pinches it off of blood supply it hurts.(turns black)
Name the three flexures/bends of large intestine Hepatic flexure, splenic flexure and sigmoid
What is the white line of toldt? Where the peritoneum fuses
What do you follow that leads you to the base of the appendix? The tenia. Anterior tenia leads to the orifice of the appendix
What transition occurs from the sigmoid to the rectum? The tenia spreads out and become circumferential
True or False: There is a series of valves at the junction between the rectum and sigmoid True. 2 on the left. 1 on the right
What gives you the sensation that you have to use the bathroom? Stretch receptors
What surrounds the recutm that allows it to accommodate the feces? Fat
Describe the internal muscle of the rectum Involuntary smooth muscle under autonomic control
What is the Dentate line? Where the mucus membrane of the colon meets the skin of the anal gland
Where are internal hemorroids? Inside the rectum covered by mucus membrane, visceral (it does not hurt)
Why do external hemorroids hurt? Covered by skin and they hurt because of somatic innervtions
What happens if you cut the extenal muscle? You lose continence
Name the only pouch found in a male Rectovesicle pouch
Name the pouches found in a female Vesicouterine and rectouterine pouch. Pouch of Douglas is between the recutm and uterus
True or False: Fluid can collect in the pouches True
True or False: You have a cul-de-sac whether uterus is present or not False. No cul-de-sac when uterus has been removed
If you collect fluid from a pouch in a female and blood doesn't clot what does that indicate? Something related to a ruptured cyst or extopic pregnancy
What is culdoscentesis? When you take fluid out of cul-de-sac
What does the the obturator internus cover? A hole in the pelvis
What makes up the pelvic sling? The levator ani muscles
Name the muscle from pubis to coccyx, pubis to around the rectum, from arcuate line to coccyx and from the spine to coccyx Pubococcygeus muscle, puborectalis muscle, ileococcygeus muscle and ischiacoccygeus
What does the piriformis muscle seal off? The most superior and posterior portion of the pelvic outlet
True or False: The appendix, rectum and sigmoid are in the pelvis True
True or False: There is no blood supply from the abdomen to the rectum True
True or False: The middle colic artery is proximal colon False. It is distal transverse colon
What does the superior mesenteric join up with to make the portal vein? The eplenic vein
Where do the branches of the internal iliac artery go? To the rectum. Forms a series of anastomoses around the rectum
Out of the pelvis what does the internal pudendal artery give off? The inferior rectus arteries
True or False: Vessels are going up to the iliac and going into the systemic venous drainage and NOT Portal system True
How can cancer get to the lungs without spreading to the liver first from the colon? The lower portion goes into the inferior vena cava bypassing the liver. If it comes from the middle portion then it will go into liver and lung at the same time. If it goes to portal system, liver will get it first
True or False: No parasympathetic fibers run with the inferior mesenteric True
What inhibits and stimulates rectal peristalsis? Sympathetic inhibits it and Parasympathetic stimulates it.
What ar the afferents above the pelvic pain line? Sympathetic and Vagus
What are the afferents below the pelvic pain line? Rectum and give rectal pain



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