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Ischional Fossa

Ischional Fossa Male

What is the various compartments of the pelvic area? Greater pelvis, lesser pelvis and perineum
Name the levator ani muscles Puberectalis, pubococcygeous and iliococcygeus
What are the levator ani muscles attached to? The tendenous arch which is a thickening of the fascia over the obrurator internus muscle
Define piriformis Part of the posterior portion of the wall
What makes up the pelvic diaphragm? Levator ani + Coccygeus
True or False: The area above the levator ani is in the pelvis True and the area below is outside the pelvis
Why is the ischioanal fossa filled with fat? to accommodate the movement of feces
Name the boundaries of the ischioanal fossa Obturator internus muscle (lateral wall of ischioanal fossa)
What is embedded in the fascia obrurator internus? Alcock's canal
Name the neurovascular bundle of alcock's canal Pudendal nerve, internal pudendal artery, internal ppudendal vein
What is the root of the neurovascular bundle in alcock's canal? S2, S3, S4. Brings innervations to muscles in that area
How do the neurovascular bundle of alcock's canal get out of the pelvis? Through the greater sciatic foramen
What ligament causes the sciatic notch to become a foramen? Sacrospinus ligament (Attached from the sacrum to spinus process of the ischioum)
True or False: The sciatic nerve goes down to the back of the leg True
What does the piriformis muscle operate? The lower limbs
What ligament does the sciatic nerve go below? The sacrotuberous ligament (lesser sciatic foramen fromed from two ligaments)
How does the pudendal nerve leave the pelvis and enter the perineum? Leaves through the greater sciatic foramen and enters throught the lesser sciatic foramen
What do the inferior rectal nerves come off of? The pudendal nerve
True or False: The pudendal nerve is a somatic nerve True: Innervates skeletal muscle
Where do the inferior rectal nerves go? To the inferior rectum and external anal sphincter
Is the scrotum in the perineum? Free penis? No both are an anterior abdomal wall structure
Name things in the perineum The ischial tuberosities, coccyx, anus and bulb of penis
What 2 triangles can the perineum be divided into? Anal triangle and urogenital triangle
Name landmarks of the anal triangle Two ischial tuberosities and coccyx
Name landmarks of the urogenital triangle The apex is at the pubic sysmphysis
What is the lithotomy position? On back with legs spread. Exposes the perineum
What covers the perineum when one stands up? The two joining thighs
What is the deep layer of superficial fascia called? Scarpa's fascia
What is the deep layer of the fascia on the thigh called? Fascia lata
What is Colles fascia? Perineal fascia
What is Darto's fascia? Superficial fascia on the penis (On the base of the penis but not on the tip)
What is the deep fascia on the penis called? Buck's fascia (not the same as colles fascia)
Where is many of the male reproduction located? In the pelvis
Name reproductive structures in the pelvis of males? Ductus deferens, seminal vesicle and prostate
Describe the ductus deferens Tube that brings sperm from the testes and deposit it into the urethra. Comes in the deep inguinal ring and goes down retroperitoneal and into the base of the prostate gland
Describe the cremaster muscle Internal oblique muscles have some fibers that come onto the spermatic cord. When the abdominal wall contracts it elevates the spermatic cord. Spermatic cord gets wider and blocks external inguinal opening
Describe the tetis structure Connective tissue covering outside called tunica albuginea. Sends little septa that divides into lobules. Lobules are filled with tubules that form sperm cells.
Describe the route of the sperm from the testis Passes through rete testis then migrates into effernt ductules. Sperm is deposited in epididymis waiting for ejaculation through ductus deferens (maturation also taking place)
What parts does the epididymis consist of? Head, body and tail and is stuck to the posterior side of the testicle
Where do the gonads develop in both the male and female? In the posterior abdominal wall. In female it drops down in the pelvis and remain inside. In male it will come outside.
Describe gubernaculum It is a connective tissue extension, goes down through the inguinal canal and attaches itself into the bottom of the scrotum. It governs the passage of the tesits through the deep inguinal ring. Differential growth, body moves down and pulls the testis
What is the diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity called that dips down before the gubernaculum? Called the processus vaginalis, it is filled with peritoneal fluid. Testes move down along the processus vaginalis
When do testes move into the scrotum? Post birth
Is the gubernaculum still present in the adult? es. it maintains the position of the testicle in the floor of the scrotum
What happens to the remainder of the processus vaginalis post birth? It will close off and there is a visceral layer and parietla layer that almost completely wraps itself around. There is some fluid in cavity of tunica vaginalis so testes can slip and slide
Name the blood supply to the testes Diferntial artery goes down to the ductus deferens, posterior veins
Describe how body temperature plays a role in blood supply to the testes Testicular artery brings blood to testicle at body temp. (too hot for sperm) Plexus of veins in the anterior that drain the testicle (pampiniform plexus) The blood is reduced due to heat exchange b/w plexus
Describe development in clocal area Skeletal muscle develop around cloacal membrane. There is a cloacal sphincter. Feces and urine accumulate in cloacal area. Phallus develops then urogenital and anus form.
What muscles are attached to the central tendon of the perinum (from penis)? Ischiocavernosus muscle, bulbospongious muscle, superficial transverse perineal muscle, external anal sphincter
Name the components of the penis Corpus spongiosum: made up of connective tissue, brings urethra out to tip of penis, has tunic albuginea around it. Bulb of penis. Corpus Cavernosum: Can become erect. Crura:legs of penis
In the superficial perineal pouch what are the structures covered by? Deep investing fascia (Gallaudet's fascia). Structures are bulbospongiosus muscle, ischiocavernosus muscle and superficial transverse
What membrane is on the inferior portion of the pubic bone? Perineal membrane.
What goes through the perineal membrane? Urethra artery, duct of the bulbourethral gland: provides lubrication, artery of the bulb of penis
What is the superficial pouch between? Perineal membrane and colles facia
What is the deep pouch? It is if we remove the perineal membrane. It has no roof.
Describe the deep transverse perineal muscle It is skeletal muscle supplied by dorsal nerve of penis
What is a straddle injury? Trauma. Where urine is free to flow up to the base of the umbilical cord. can be repaired
Name nerves to rectum, scrotum and penis Pudendal nerve: gives rise to inferior rectal. superficial perineal nerve: supplies the posterior side of scrotum. Deep perineal nerve: supplies structures in superficial perineal pouch. Dorsal nerve of penis
Describe the blood supply of the penis Runs piggy back. Internal pudendal arteries, inferior rectal arteries, perineal arteries and posterior scrotal arteries
What does the internal pudendal artery give rise to? what other arteries are in the penis? the artery to the bulb of the penis. There is also a deep artery of the penis



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