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Free Radicals Structurally unbalanced chemicals capable of destroying other compounds that form the internal structure of neurons, which causes internal structural meltdown and leads to nerve cell death. Increased calcium = increased free radicals.
GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) The body's major inhibitory NT.
Acetylcholine A key NT from ANS involved with memory, as well as emotional state. Will seek out specific receptors to bind to. Also lowers heart rate.
Norepinephrine One of the most important functions of this is to increase HR. Also controls the flight or fright response and plays a role in mood and behavior.
Serotonin 90% is thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness. The remainder has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep and cognitive functions, including memory and learning.
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Stimulates the adrenal glands to release the stress hormone corticosteroid (helps you run faster and get somewhere on time, etc.) and epinephrine. Often produced in response to biological stress. Excess of it is a cause of Cushing’s syndrome.
Dopamine Plays a role in mood and behavior. One of the operative chemical messengers in the brain's reward system. Key in addiction. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of this, such as Parkinson's and Schizophrenia.
Glutamate The major excitatory NT. Principle communication across the cortex and into SC or out to body. May increase addiction. Assoc w/ stroke, ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease), lathyrism, autism, some forms of mental delay, and Alzheimer's disease due to depletion.
MAO-B Metabolizes dopamine and generates toxic, brain damaging free radicals, mainly to brain stem, Limbic, and frontal cortex (where NTs are primarily produced). Hence, produces mental changes. Inhibitors used in the tx of Parkinson's Disease.
Levodopa L-DOPA A precursor to the NTs dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline) collectively known as catecholamines. Basically replaces dopamine. Medication form tx Parkinson's.
Epinephrine (also known as Adrenaline or Adrenalin) A hormone and a NT that has many functions in the body: regulating heart rate, blood vessel and air passage diameters, and metabolic shifts. Also release is a crucial component of the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system.
Glycine An inhibitory NT in the CNS, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina. When receptors are activated, chloride enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, causing an Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP).
Endorphins Produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus during exercise, excitement, pain, consumption of spicy food, love and orgasm, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a feeling of well-being. ("Endogenous Morphine")
Which NTs influence the behavior response (3)? Acetylcholine (ACh), Norephinephrine, and Serotonin.
Excititory Neurotransmitters ACh (cardiac-), ATP (as a NT), Catecholamines, Glutamate, Histamine, Neuropeptides.
Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Dopamine, Endorphins, Enkephalins, GABA, Glycine, Serotonin.
NTs that can be both excititory and inhibitory... Nor/Epinephrine.
Enkephalins NTs that work to suppress pain. Two different types. Released by the brain and SC. Classified as Endorphins.
Catecholamines Dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Produced by the adrenal glands and released into the blood during times of physical or emotional stress. More often measured with a urine test rather than with a blood test.
Histamine The NT your body produces when you're having an allergic reaction, making your skin red and itchy. In extreme cases, levels of this can be elevated so high by rxn, it causes anaphylactic shock (where organs essentially shut down) and possibly death.
What is the only chemical that can quickly eliminate histamine in a person? Adrenaline (Epinephrine). In anaphylactic shock, it is essential that you are injected with adrenaline immediately to counteract the dangerously high histamine level and prevent death.
Can "antihistamines" (like Benadryl) eliminate histamine in a person? No. They block some of your body's histamine receptors (relieving some symptoms). They do not remove histamine.
What are the categories of NTs? A= Acetylcholine‎, N= Neuropeptides (Neurotransmitter Transporters), O= Opioids‎, S= Serotonin‎.
Created by: kmburg5840
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