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Suprarenal glands

Suprarenal glands, kidneys, ureter

Where does the quadratus lumborum run? From the medial 1/3 of the 12th rib to the medial 1/3 of iliac crest
What is lateral to the quadratus lumborum? Thoracolumbar fascia
Where does the thoracolumbar fascia attach? To the transverses abdominus, internal oblique and external oblique
What is the middle layer of the thoracolumbar fascia between? The deep muscles of the back and the quadratus lumborum
What does the pelvic brim separate? True pelvis from false pelvis
Where does the true pelvis begin and run? Begins at the pelvic brim and extends inferiorly to the the level of levator ani
True or false: The pelvic cavity is inferior to levator ani False. It is superior
Perinium is inferior or superior to levator ani? Inferior
Name muscles betwen quadratus lumborum and vertebral column Psoas major, psoas minor
What part of the body does the psoas major allow you to flex? Your hip
True or False: Psoas major and minor have a fascial wrapping called psoas sheath True
Where does the psoas sheath extend? From the lumbar vertebrae all the way to the thigh
What can tuberculosis of one of the lumbar vertebrae cause pus to flow? Inferiorly into psoas sheath and appear below the inguinal ligament
True or false: The right kidney hilum is one vertebra higher than the left False. The left kidney is one vertebrae higher
Where is the 12th rib in relation to kidneys? 12th rib is in the middle of left kidney and along superior border of right kidney
True or false: The ureter almost never crosses the common iliac artery True
Where does the ureter enter the pelvic brim? Anterior to the bifurcation of the common iliac into the external iliac and internal iliac arteries
Where does the ureter run in relation to the psoas sheath? Superficial
What do you find on the posterior side of each kidney? T12 and L1 branches
What are the two branches that L1 give out? Iliolumbar and ilioinguinal
What vein do the renal veins go into? The inferior vena cava
Where do the renal arteries come off the aorta? Just below the superior mesenteric artery
Where is the projection of the umbilicus? At L4
What are the kidneys packed with? Cushions/layers of fat, then enclosed with renal fascia
What are the 2 layers of fat around the kidney? 1 between the renal fascia and kidney capsule(perirenal fat) 1 between the renal fascia and the thoracolumbar fascia(pararenal fat)
What are the adrenal glands contained in? The renal fascia
True or false: There is a septum separating the adrenal glands from the kidney True
What are the dimensions of the kidney? 10cm long, 5cm wide and 2.5cm thick
What are the 5 renal segments Superior, Anterosuperior, anterioinferior, inferior, posterior
Where do glomeruli sit? In the renal cortex
Describe the renal columns Cortical tissue pushing into the middle of the kidney
Describe the renal pyramids and what they consist of Consist of loops of henle, the ductile exiting with urine on the surface of the renal papilla
Where do the renal papilla pour urine? Into the minor calyces
Describe the route in kidney starting from renal papilla Renal papilla to minor calyx to major calyx to renal pelvis to ureter
Describe renal sinus Where there is packing of fat (deep to hilum) where things go in and out
What artery runs into the splenorenal ligament? the splenic artery which supplies the spleen
Name structures anterior to the right kidney 1st and 2nd part of duodenum, hepatic area, colic area
Name structures anterior to the left kidney spleen, stomach, pancreas, jejunum and colic
Name structures posterior to the left kidney diaphragm, quadratus lumborum, psoas, transversus tendon
Posterior to right kidney Diaphragm, quadratus lumborum, transversus tendon, psoas
Where does the 1st left suprarenal vein drain into? Renal vein
Where does the gondal vein drain into? Left renal vein
What 3 sources supply both suprarenal glands? Phrenic arteries, middle suprarenal arteries and inferior suprarenal arteries
Where do the short veins go? Into IVC and right renal vein
True or False: Both suprarenal veins drain into renal vein False. Only left
What are the sections of the suprarenal glands? Medulla and Cortex
What does medulla do? cortex? Medulla: secretes adrenaline and epinephrine. responds to sympathetic stimulation. Cortex: makes steroid hormones. responds to adrenocorticotropic hormone release by pituitary gland
Where does the ureter run? Inferiorly on the anterior side of the psoas major
Describe sympathetic efferents role in ureter Innervate the smooth muscle and coordinate peristalsis (one way valve)
What supplies the ureter? Right renal artery, gonadal areteries, branches from common iliac, internal iliac and superior vesical arteries
Name the 3 places of constriction of the ureter Pelvoureteral junction, where ureter crosses pelvic brim and where ureter enters the bladder
Describe ureter colic Devastating painful conditions. problems from stones in constricted area
Where does the ureter run in a male in relation to vas deferens? below the vas deferens as it reaches the posterior aspect of the bladder
What is in the beginning of the urethra in males? Prostate gland
Where does the prostate rest? on the levator ani
What are the surfaces of the urinary bladder? Superior, apex, base or fundus, inferolateral
What type of muscle is the external urethral sphincter? Skeletal
Most of the inside of the bladder and the trigone of bladder is derived from what? Mesoderm
What type of muscle is internal urethral sphincter? Smooth
Define micturition to urinate
What is the wall of the smooth muscle in the bladder called? Detrusor muscle
What innervates the detrusor muscle? parasympathetics from efferents s2, s3, s4. Pelvic splanchnics
True or False: Sympathetic efferent constrict the internal urethral sphincter True
True or False:Parasympathetics afferents lead to erection True
True or False: Parasympathetic efferents are involved in ejaculation False. Sympathetic efferents
What distinguish gas from non gas? Visceral efferents
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