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A&P- Parsons- Bones

Anatomy and Physiology- Vocabulary for Bone System

cell smallest organization of matter that is alive
tissue a collection of cells with a similar structure and a similar function
organ a collection of two or more tissues that are working together to perform a function
organ system a collection or organs working together to perform a function
organism all the organ systems
four basic groups of tissues nervous, muscular, epithelial, connective
extracellular matrix nonliving substance around the cell
-blast stem cell; forms the tissue
-cyte mature cell; maintains the tissue
-clast related to the white blood cells; breaks down tissue, important in remodeling
macrophage large motile cell; phagocyte
mast cell non-motile connective tissue cell
dense collagenous connective tissues fibroblast cells; great tensile strength and stretch resistance; found in tendonds, most ligaments
chondrocyte cartilage cell; located in lacuna
lacuna a small space within the extracellular matrix
extracellular matrix collagenous fibers; firm, flexible, resilient; no blood supply
osteocyte mature bone cell; in lacuna; maintains matrix
articulations where joints meet
tendons bands of dense collagenous connective tissue; connect muscle to bone
ligaments bands of dense collagenous connective tissue; connect bone to bone
long bones longer than they are wide; most bones of the appendages; often act as levers
short bones about as long as they are wide; blocky; bones of wrist and ankle
flat bones thin, flattened, usually curves; bones of cranium, sternum, ribs, scapular
irregular bones do not fit in the other three categories; facial bones, vertebrae
compact bone forms an outer shell; dense and strong
cancellous (spongy) bone honeycome of microscopic interconnected boney rods and plates; central to the compact bone
diaphysis tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones; composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
epiphyses expanded ends of long bones; exterior is compact bone and the interior is spongy bone
periostem double-layered protective membrane; outer fibrous layer is dense irregular connective tissue
endosteum delicate membrane covering internal surface of bone; single layer of cells containing osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Haversian system (osteon) the structural unit of compact bone
lamellae thin sheets of extracellular matrix; organized into sets of concentric rings
cancellous bone lighter; space for marrow; located in epiphysis or in inner portion of the bone
osteoclasts large cells that resorb or breakdown bone
Process of ossification osteoblast secretes organic matrix; matrix becomes mineralized; trapped osteoblast becomes an osteocyte; osteocytes maintain the bone matrix
intramembranous ossification occurs within the membrane
endochondral ossification begins as cartilage
clot formation torn blood vessels hemorrhage; a mass of clotted blood forms at the fracture site; site becomes swollen, painful, and inflames
callus formation occurs two or three days after the injury; blood vessels and connective tissue stem cells invade the clod; formation of a fibrous netqork and cartilage between the broken bones
callus ossification oseoblasts enter the callus and begin forming cancellous bone; usually complete 4-6 weeks after injury
cacitonin secreted by thyroid gland; inhibits osteoclast activity and thus decreases blood calcium levels
parathormone secreted by parathyroid glands; stimulates osteoclast cells to breakdown bone minerals to raise blood calcium levels
bone types by structure fibrous, cartilagenous, synovial
synarthroses immovable joints
ampiarthroses slightly moveable joints
diarthroses freely movable joints
sutures occur between the bones of the skull; comprised of interlocking junctions completely filled with connective tissue fibers
syndesmoses bones are connected by a fibrous tissue ligament; movement varies from immovable to slightly variable
gomphoses peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket
synchondroses a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones; all synchondroses are synarthrotic; ex- epiphyseal plates of children
symphyses hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage; ex- pubic symphysis of the pelvis
bursa reduces friction
tendon sheath elongated bursa; wraps completely around a tendon
plane (type of synovial joint) two opposed flat surfaces; between carpal bones
saddle (type of synovial joint) two saddle shaped surfaces at right angles to one another; movement in two planes; carpometacarpal articulation of the thumb
hinge (type of synovial joint) allows movement in only one axis; knee, finger joint, elbow
pivot (type of synovial joint) rotation around a single axis; joint between 1st and 2nd vertebrae
ball-and-socket (type of synovial joint) multiple axes, movement in three planes; hip, shoulder
condyloid/elipsoid (type of synovial joint) a type of ball-and-socket joint; oval articular surface of one bones fits into a complementary depression of another bone; biaxia movement; wrist joint
flexion decreasing the angle at the joint, usually in the sagittal plane
extension increasing the angle at the joint, usually in the sagittal plane
hyperextension extension past the anatomical position
dorsiflexion flexion at the ankle; the foot is in a partially flexed position
plantar flexion extension at the ankle
abduction movement away from the sagittal plane
adduction movement toward the sagittal plane
circumduction the limb is moved to circumscribe a cone
rotation movement of a bone around an axis without displacing it from that axis; head
medial rotation the anterior surface of the limb moves toward the median plane
lateral rotation the anterior surface of the limb moves away from the median plane
supination rotation of the forearm so that the palm is in the anatomical position (face up)
pronation rotation of the forearm so that the palm is face down
eversion rotation of the foot so that the sole of the foot is turned outward
inversion rotation of the foot so that the sole of the foot is turned inward
Created by: glamgal469



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