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Midterm: Unit 1

Unit One Midterm Review

TERMID/SIG.
Hanseatic League Alliance of trading guilds that established a trade monopoly
Estates 1. Clergy, 2. Nobility, and 3. Others.
Baldassare Castiglione (1478 - 1529) "The Book of the Courtier" (1528) : Handbook for aristocrats.
Francesco Sforza Became duke of Milan by turngn on his Milanese employers. He devised a tax system that generated a large revenue for the government.
Sack of Rome (1527) HRE raided Rome (A Papal State) which meant that the HRE and Spain won over the Pope. This also ended the Roman Rennaisance.
Niccolo Machievelli "The Prince" : Taught Princes how to rule.
Individualism Dscribes a moral, political, or social outlook that stressed human independence (no religious limitations).
Secularism Idea that certain practices should be seperated from religion.
Humanism Intellectual movement based on the study of classical literary works of Greece and Rome.
Pico della Mirandola "Oration on the Dignity of Man" : Ideas of many different philosphers came together.
Petrarch "Father of Humanism". He created a model for modern Italy.
Liberal Studies Study of history, moral philosophy, rhetoric, grammar and logic, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music.
Francesco Guicciardini "Father of Modern History".
Giotto Painter (Florence) : Arena Chapel
Botticelli Painter (Italy) : Primavera
Donatello Painter (Florence) : David
Brunelleschi Painter (Florence) : Church of San Lorenzo
Leonardo da Vinci Painter (Florence) : Last Supper
Raphael Painter : Madonas and Frescoes at the Vatican
Michelangelo Painter : Sistine Chapel
Northern Renaissance Difference in art and centralization of political power.
Van Eyck Painter (N) : Giovanni Arnolini and his Bride
New Monarchies Monarchies that gained more power via centralization of government.
Durer Painter (N) : Mastery of laws of Perspective and Rennaisance Theories of Proportion.
Louis XI (France) : "The Spider King" ; Taille
Henry VII (England) : First Tudor king ; Ended private wars of nobility ; Star Chamber.
Isabella and Ferdinand (Spain) : Unified Spain ; Created royal army ; Made clergy an instrument of royal power.
Maxmilian I (HRE) : Attempted to centralize.
John Wyclif Wanted to translate the Bible into Vernacular and he was disgusted by the Clerical corruption. Created English Lollardly.
John Hus Spread Lollardly. Reform to eliminate the worldiness and corruption of the clergy and the extensive power of the papacy.
Great Schism 3 Popes were elected (split within Church). Ended with the Council of Constance and the election of Pope Martin V.
Julius II "Warrior Pope".
Leo X Great patron of Renaissace culture.
Erasmus Most influencial of all Christian Humanists.
Thomas More "Ethiopia"
Fredrick the Wise Defended Martin Luther.
Emperor Charles V (HRE) Grandson of Isabella
Peasants War Hindrance to Luther.
Peace of Augsburg (1555) Formally acknowledge the division of Christianity and it accepted the right of each German ruler to determine the religion of his subjects.
Union of Kalmar Unified Denmark, Norway, and Sweden under the rule of the king of Denmark.
Act of Supremacy (1534) Gave the king all power, and took all the power away from the Pope.
John Knox Spread Calvinism on Scotland.
Society of Jesus 1. Absolute obedience to the Papacy, 2. Common Education, and 3. Detemination to engage in "conflict for God".
Hugenots French Calvinists
Edict of Nantes (1598) Acknowledged Catholicism as the official religion on France, but it allowed Huguenots to worship in selected places.
Duke of Alva Sent by Philip II to go to the Netherlands with an army to stop the revolt.
William of Orange (Netherlands) Helped in the revolt of Netherlands.
Created by: shivi88