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Nancy Caroline chpt7

Anatomy/Physiology Vocabulary

abdomen the body cavity containing the major organs. located below the diaphram, above the pelvis.
abduction movement of a limb AWAY from the body
acetabulum the depression on the lateral pelvis. 3 component bones join to house the femoral head.
acetylcholine an excitatory neurotransmitter used in the peripheral and central nervous system.
acetylcholinesterase the enzyme that causes muscle relaxation by decomposition of acetylcholine.
acid a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a water solution.
acidosis a pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of acids in the body.
acromioclavicular separation (AC separation) an injury caused by distraction of the clavicle away from the acromion process of the scapula.
acromion process the tip of the shoulder and the site of attachment for both the clavicle and various shoulder muscles
action potentials an electrochemical event where stimulation of a nearby cell could cause excitation of another cell.
active transport method used to move compounds across a cell membrain. usually against a concentration gradient and requiring the expenditure of energy.
adam's apple the firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage.
adaptation the temporary or permanent reduction of sensitivity to a particular stimulus.
adduction movement of a limb TOWARD the midline
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.
adipose tissue fat tissue that lies beneath the skin, between muscles, around kidneys, behind the eyes, in certain abdominal membranes, on the heart's surface, and around certain joints.\
adrenal cortex the outer layer of the adrenal glad; produces hormones. is a key part of water and salt balance regulation.
adrenal glands Endocrine glands. Located ontop of the kidneys. release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
adrenaline hormone produced by the adrenal glands. mediates fight-or-flight. AKA Epinephrine
adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) hormone that targets the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol (a glucocorticoid)
aerobic metabolism metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.
afferent arterioles final branches of the interlobular arters of the kidneys. lead TO the nephrons.
after-image the perception of a stimuli is still present after the stimuli is removed.
afterload the pressure in the aorta against which the Left Ventricle must pump blood.
agonal gasps slow, gasping respirations. indicating life-threatening cerebral injury or ischemia
agonist a substance that mimics the actions of a specific neurotransmitter or hormone by binding the specific receptor of the naturally occurring substance.
agranulocytes Leukocytes that lack granules.
albumins the smallest of plasma proteins. make up approximately 60% of protein weight.
alkalosis a pathogenic condition resulting from the accumulation of bases in the body.
alleles variant forms of a gene which can be identical or slighly different in DNA sequence
allergen substance causing allergic reaction AKA an antigen
alpha cells cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete glucagon
alpha effects stimulation of alpha receptors that result in vasoconstriction.
alveolar ducts ducts formed from division of the respiratory bronchioles in the lower airway. each duct ends in clusters AKA alveoli
alveoli the air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
alveolocapillary membrane very thin membrane, consisting of only one cell layer. lies between the alveolus and capillary, through which respiratory exchange between the alveolus and the blood vessel occurrs.
amblyopia lazy eye. causes loss of depth perception. one fails to send adequate signals to the vision center.
anabolism the synthesis of larger molecules for smaller ones
anaerobic metabolism metabolism that takes place in the ABSENCE of oxygen. causes lactic acid
anatomic position pt faces you, arms at side, palms forward
anatomy the study of the structure of an organism and it's parts
androgens male sex hormones mostly produced by the testicular interstital cells
anions ions with a negative charge
antagonist a molecule that blocks the ability of a given chemical to bind to its receptor, preventing a biologic response
anterior the front surface of the body
anterior cavity Aqueous chamber; portion of the eyeball filled with the aqueous humor. the hummor determines intraocular pressure.
antibodies (immunoglobulin) proteins within plasma that react with antigens
aorta the principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
aortic arch one of the 3 described portions of the aorta. the section between the ascending and descending portions that gives rise to the right brachiocephalic, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries
aortic valve semilunar valve that regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta
apex (plural) the pointed extremity of a conical structure
apneustic center a portion of the pons that assists in creating longer slower respirations
appendicular skeleton the portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis and shoulder girdle
appendix a small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the LRQ of the abdomen
aqueous humor watery fluid filling the anterior eye cavity
arachnoid the middle membrane or the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord
areolar tissue the type of tissue that binds skin to underlying organs and fills in spaces between muscles.
arteries the blood vessele that carries blood away from the heart
arterioles the smallest branches of arteries leading to the cast network of capillaries
ascending aorta the first of three portions of the aorta; originates from the left ventricle and branches into the right and left main coronary arteries
astigmatism irregularities in the shape of the lense causing vision disturbance.
astrocytes neuroglia found usually between neurons and blood vessels
atlanto-occipital joint the location where the atlasx articulates with the occipital condyles
atlas C1- supports the head
atomic number whole number representing the number of positively charged protons in the nuclues of an atom
atomic weight the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
atoms smallest complete units of an element that have elements properties
atrioventricular node (AV node) the site located in the AV junction that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction.
atrioventricular valves mitral and tricuspid valves throught which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
atrium one of 2 upper chambers of the heart
auditory ossicles the bones that function in hearing and are located deep withing cavities of the temporal bone
autonomic nervous systen (ANS) regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating. involuntary functions
autosomes chromosomes that do not carry genes that determine sex
avascular lacking blood vessels
axial skeleton the skull, spinal column and rib cage
axillary vein the vein formed by the basilic and cephalic veins, which drains into the subclavian vein
axis C2- allows the head to rotate
axons extensions from neurons that send out electrochemical messages
b lymphocytes (B cells) lympphocytes that exist in blood, and are abundant in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, intestinal lining and spleen
baroreceptors receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart/main arteries to maintain homeostasis
basal metabolic rate the rate at which nutrients are consumed
base a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions
basement membrane anchors epithelial tissues to connective tissue
basilic vein one of two major veins in of the arm, combines with the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein
basophils WBC's that work to durring an immune response
beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin
beta effects stimulation of beta receptors that result in inotropic, dromotropic and chronotropic states
bilateral both sides of the midline
bile ducts convey bile between the liver and intestine
bilirubin a waste product of red blood cell destruction that under-goes further metabolism in the liver
binocular vision the merging of two images into one
blood pumps from the heart, throught the arteries, to the veins, into the capillaries. consists of plasma, RBC's, WBC's and platelets
blood pressure pressure that is exerted against the arteries as it passes through them
bone marrow a substance that manufactures most RBC's
bony labyrinth collection of hollows in the bone of the inner ear that protect the inner ear from extraneous stimulation
brachial artery major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm
brain controlling organ of the body and centure of conciousness. functions include include perception, contol of reactions to the environment, emotion responses and judgement
brainstem the area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum. controlls functions necessary for life respirations, etc
bronchioles fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveolar ducts
bronchospasm constirction of the airway passages into the lungs
bruit an abnormal "wooshing-like" shound indicating turbulent blood flow within a blood vessel
buffer any substance that can reversibly bind H+
buffer system fast-acting defenses for acid-base changes
bulbourethral glands Cowpers glands, located inferior to the prostate gland. secretes lubricating fluid that prepares the penis for intercourse
bundle of his a continuation of the AV node
bursa small fluid-filled sac located a tendon and a bone that cushions and protects the joint
calcaneus heel bone
calcitonin hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid glad. regulates calcium levels in the body
calorie the amount of heat needed to raise the temp of a gram of water by 1*C
cancellous bone consists of a lacy network of bony rods called trabeculae
capillaries tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste between the body tissues and the blood
carbohydrates provide much of the energy required by the bodys cells and for formation of cell structure
cardiac cycle begins with the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just proior to the beginning of the next contraction
cardiac muscle tissue striated muscle of myocardium, containing dark intercalated disks at the junctions of abutting fibers.
cardiac output the volume of blood pumped through the circulatory system in 1 minute
carotid artery major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain
carotid bifurcation the point which the common carotid branches into the internal and external carotids
carpometacarpal joint the thumb joint
cartilage provides cushion between joints. also forms the nasal septum and parts of the outer ear
cartilaginous joints those connected by hyaline cartilage, or fibrocartilage, such as the joints that separate the vertebrae
catabolism the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones
cataract clouding of the lense of the eye or it's surrounding transparent membranes
catecholamines hormones produced by the adrenal medulla (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that assist the body with physical and emotional stress. increase blood pressure, heart reat and respiratory rate.
cations Ions with a positive charge
cecum the first part of the large intesting, into which the ileum opens
cell membrane the cell wall. selectively permeable layer of cells that surround intracellular contents
cellular immune response tell-mediated immunity. t-cells attach to foreigh, antigen-bearing cells such as bacterial cells and interact with direct cell-to-cell contact
Created by: BMurray