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Planning Making Dos

Planning Making II AICP

Population is the total number of some entity. The total number of planners preparing for the 2011 AICP exam would be a population.
Sample is a subset of the population. For example, 25 candidates out of the total number of planners preparing for the 2011 AICP exam.
Descriptive Statistics describe the characteristics of a population.
Inferential Statistics determine characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population. We infer things about the population based on what is observed in the sample.
Central tendency is the typical or representative value of a dataset. There are several ways to report central tendency, including mean, median, and mode.
Mean is the average of a distribution. The mean of [2, 3, 4, 5] is 3.5.
Median is the middle number of a ranked distribution. The median of [2, 3, 4, 6, 7] is 4.
Mode is the most frequent number in a distribution. The modes of [1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7] are 3 and 7. There can be more than one mode for a data set.
Nominal data is classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race, social security number, and sex are examples of nominal data. Mode is the only measure of central tendency that can be used for nominal data.
Ordinal data has values that are ranked so that inferences can be made regarding the magnitude. However, ordinal data has no fixed interval between values. Educational attainment or a letter grade on a test are examples of ordinal data. Mode and median are the only measures of central te
Interval data is data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude. For temperature, 30 degrees is not twice as cold as 60 degrees. Mean is the best measure of interval data. Where the data is skewed median can be used.
Ratio data has an ordered relationship and equal intervals. Distance is an example of ratio data because 3.2 miles is twice as long as 1.6 miles. Any form of central tendency can be used for this type of data.
A normal distribution is that is symmetrical around the mean. This is a bell curve.
A distribution skewed to the right has a few high numbers (outliers) that pull the mean to the right. For example, if there are three $20 million homes in your community, it is likely to skew the mean home value to the right.
A distribution skewed to the left has a few low numbers (outliers) that pull the mean to the left. When taking the AICP exam, for instance, a few people may give up and walk out resulting in a few very low scores, which would skew the mean score to the left.
Measures of Dispersion: While in some cases we want to know the central tendency of a dataset, in other cases we want to know the extent to which data differs from each other. This is known as the dispersion of a distribution.
Range is the simplest measure of dispersion. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. The age range of the respondents in a neighborhood survey goes from 18-year-old to 62-year-old. This results in a range of 44.
Variance is the average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a distribution.Variance is a descriptor of a probability distribution, how far the numbers lie from the mean.
Standard Deviation is the square root of the variance
Standard Error is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution. Standard errors indicate the degree of sampling fluctuation. The larger the sample size the smaller the standard error.
Confidence Interval gives an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how uncertain we are about the unknown parameter
Chi Square is a non-parametric test statistic that provides a measure of the amount of difference between two frequency distributions. Chi Square is commonly used for probability distributions in inferential statistics. This Chi Square distribution is used to test the go
Chi Square distribution is used to test the goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one.
Urbanized Area urban nucleus of 50,000 or more people. These urbanized areas may or may not contain any individual cities of 50,000 or more. In general, they must have a core with a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile and may contain adjoining territory
Urban Cluster at least 2,500 but less than 50,000 persons and a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile. This delineation of built-up territory around small towns and cities is new for the 2000 Census. In 2000, 11% of the U.S. population lived in 3,158 urba
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or an urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants), and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000.
Primary MSA (PMSA) is an area that meets the requirements for an MSA and has a population of one million or more and separate component areas that can be identified within the entire area.
Consolidated MSA (CMSA) is made up of several PMSA's. An example is the Dallas-Fort Worth Consolidated Metropolitan Area. Dallas and Fort Worth are each primary metropolitan statistical areas.
Megalopolis In 1961, Jean Gottman published Megalopolis, a book about the 300-mile-long urban area between Boston and Washington D.C. The Oxford Dictionary of Geography defines the term as "any many-centered, multi-city, urban area of more than 10 million inhabitants
Census Tract typically has a population between 2,000 and 8,000 people. It is the smallest area where all information is released
Census Block is the smallest level at which the Census data is collected. There are typically 400 housing units per block.
Minor Civil Division (MCD) is a unit only used in 29 states and usually corresponds to a municipality. Census County Divisions are used in the 21 states that do not have MCD's
Tribal Designated Statistical Area is a unit drawn by by tribes that do not have a recognized land area.
Threshold Population is a term that is under a number of government programs to determine program eligibility. For example, the Phase II Stormwater requirements automatically apply if a city meets the minimum threshold population. Another example is the Threshold Population t
American Community Survey (ACS) survey, which replaces the long form in the decennial Census, takes a sample of the population and projects the findings to the population as a whole. The ACS began on a nationwide basis back in 2005
Baby Boomers People born in the United States between 1946 and 1964 are known as Baby Boomers. The name "baby boomers" came about because there was an exceptionally high birth rate during the period
Generation X These people were born between 1965 and 1976, which was a period of low birth rates.
Generation Y (aka Echo Boom) These are the children of the baby boomers. These people were born between approximately 1977 and 2000. The exact years of this generation vary depending on the source. These are generally children born in the 1980s and 1990s.
Generation Z These are the children born after 2000. The exact years of this generation vary depending on the source.
TIGER Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map, which is used for Census data. A TIGER map includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks.
UrbanSim s a simulation software program that models planning and urban development. This free software program is designed to be used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs).
CommunityViz is a software program that allows agencies to create 3D images. This allows citizens to visualize the potential for development and redevelopment
Digital Aerial Photography is frequently used by planners. Digital aerial photography has allowed for increased accuracy to the 0.5 foot resolution. These photographs can be incorporated into GIS.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) show digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it. DEMs can be used for stormwater management, flood control, land use decisions, and other purposes.
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a new technology using a laser, instead of radio waves, that is mounted in an airplane to provide detailed topographic information. It can provide a dense pattern of data points to create one foot contours for DEMs for use in watershed mapping and hydrologic modeling for flood
Fiscal Impact Analysis also known as cost-revenue analysis, is used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government.
Average Per Capita Method: This is the simplest method, but it is also the least reliable. It divides the total local budget by the existing population in a city to determine the average per-capita cost for the jurisdiction. The result is multiplied by the expected new population a
Average Per Capita Method Problem is that assumes the cost of service to a new development is the same as the cost to service the existing community. This may not be true.
Adjusted Per Capita Method: the figure calculated above and adjusts this based on expectations about the new development. This relies on subjective judgment.
Disaggregated Per Capita Method estimates the costs and revenues based on major land uses; for example, the cost of servicing a shopping center versus an apartment complex
Dynamic Method: applies statistical analysis to time-series data from a jurisdiction. This method determines, for example, how much sales tax revenue is generated per capita from a grocery store and applies this to new development.
Environmental Assessment s required to determine whether there is a significant environmental impact.
An Environmental Impact Statement typically has four sections: Introduction includes a statement of the Purpose and Need of the,Proposed Action,Description of the Affected Environment; Range of Alternatives to the proposed action. Alternatives are considered the "heart" of the EIS;Analysis of the environmental impac
Environmental Impact Statement must address each of the following five topics Probable impact of the proposed action; Any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; Alternatives to the proposed action;
Relationship between local short-term uses of the environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity of the land; Any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that would be involved in the proposed action.
budget is the allocation and expenditure of funds to provide service to the public. A budget serves to set spending priorities.
There are two primary types of budgets: Operating budget and capital budget
operating budget includes everyday expenditures of an organization, such as supplies, personnel, and maintenance of office space.
capital budget includes long-term purchases, such as a new building, recreation center, water main, or major equipment.
A capital budget is a one-year budget for capital expenditures, while a Capital Improvements Program (CIP) is a longer range (5-10 year) look at the capital needs of a community.
Line-item Budgeting emphasis is on projecting the budget for the next year while adding in inflationary costs. The advantage of this method is that it does not require any evaluation of existing services, it is easy to prepare and justify
Line-item budget only looks one-year into the future and is not linked with strategic, comprehensive, or capital improvement plans.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) ocused on planning through accomplishing goals set by a department.
PPBS advantage of this method is that it helps departments place their programs in perspective and evaluate efforts and accomplishments.
PPBS disadvantage is that it is time-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and objectives be stated in measurable terms
Planning, Programming, Budgeting (PPB) includes the following components Budget organized by program areas (includes program mission statements, objectives, and indicators of success); Long-range planning of goals, programs, and required resources; Policy analysis, cost-benefit analysis, program evaluation.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) emphasizes planning and fosters understanding within all units of an organization
ZBB advantage of this method is that it r requires a department to consider every aspect of its operation and concentrate on why it does things the way it does.
ZBB disadavantage , because it is time consuming to justify every activity.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) includes the following components: Efficiency and effectiveness of programs to be re-evaluated on a regular basis;Agencies to prepare “decision packages” for each program that look at the impact on mission of “low”, “medium”, and “high” funding; Decision packages of all programs ranked by
ZBB has limited success because of its ntensive information requirements and limited benefits to managers.
Performance-based budgeting is focused on inking funding to performance measures. For example, funding could be tied to the amount of time it takes to process plat applications or building permits.
The advantage of this method is that it helps departments develop and evaluate performance standards.
The disadvantage is that it is ime-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and objectives be stated in measurable terms.
Performance-based budgeting includes the following components: Use of traditional function/object budget; Performance information on workload, productivity, outputs, and outcomes; Performance and spending may be linked through cost analysis, and program evaluation.
Pay-As-You-G uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects;
Reserve Funds are ones that have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements;
General Obligation Bonds are oter-approved bonds for capital improvements. GO Bonds use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt;
Revenue Bonds use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. For example, revenue bonds could be issued to pay for a new water main.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) allows a designated area to have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in that area.
Special Assessments allows a particular group of people to assess the cost of a public improvement
Lease-purchase allows a government to “rent-to-own.” The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvements.
Grants allow for all or a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government. Grants are available from all levels of government, private sector, and foundations
Progressive The tax rate increases as income rises
Proportional The tax rate is the same regardless of income.
Regressive The tax rate decreases as income rises.
Fairness tax should reflect the ability to pay of those who bear its burden. Those who are poor, for instance, should not have to pay a lot in taxes;
Certainty A tax should be fairly applied (i.e., I know that every time I go to purchase a gallon of milk that I will be taxed the same rate);
Convenience – A tax should be convenient to pay. For example, vehicle registration taxes are mailed to vehicle owners' homes;
Efficiency – A tax should allow collection and enforcement to be a straightforward process;
Productivity A tax should provide a stable source of revenue;
Neutrality A tax should not change the way a government would normally use its resources.
Cost-benefit analysis estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs to the community of a project(s) to determine whether they should be undertaken.
Project Management Techniques Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM), Gantt Chart, Linear programming, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), and Critical Path Method (CPM)
Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) is a comprehensive way to evaluate a project. The GAM is a chart that shows the anticipated attainment of a project’s goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group.
Gantt Chart was developed in 1917 by Charles Gantt. This chart focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion. Each task is represented as a single horizontal bar on an X-Y chart.
Linear programming is a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. PERT is a good choice when precise time estimates are not available for project tasks.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Identify the specific activities and milestones; • Determine the proper sequence of the activities; • Construct a network diagram; • Determine the critical path; • Update the PERT chart as the project progresses.
Critical Path Method (CPM) is a tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a “critical path” through the project tasks. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed.
Created by: CitiesExplore
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