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Nervous System/Tissu

Nervous Tissue

What derives from the neural tube? Neural crest? Neural Tube: CNS. Neural Crest: PNS
What is the CNS divided into? PNS? CNS: Divided into Brain and Spinal Cord. PNS: Divided into ganglia and peripheral nerves
What does neurons refer to? What are the parts? Neurons are the cell and all of its parts. The receiving end is called the dendrites and a transmission end is called the axon.
Can axons be long and short? YES
Where can long axons exist? In both the CNS and PNS
Where can short axons exist? Only in the CNS
What defines the boundary of the CNS and PNS? Axon myelin
What system is the Schwann cell located? Oligodendrocyte? PNS: Schwann cell. CNS: Oligodendrocyte.
Name some things the PNS is composed of Spinal nerves, cranial nerves,satellite cells
Do motor axons leave or enter the CNS? Motor axons leave the CNS and sensory axons enter the CNS
What are satellite cells homologous to in the CNS? To glial cells (astrocytes)
What does the somatic system deal with? Voluntary muscles and skin
What does the autonomic system deal with? Smooth muscle, organs and glands
What does the enteric nervous system? Enormous amount of neurons associated with the gut
What is meant by robotic neurons? They are not the basis for intellect or plasticity
How do neurons communicate? Majority is chemical then there are electrical (gap junctions) electrically coupled
What do glial cells provide? Specialized metabolic support
What are ependyma cells? Line the ventricles of the brain. Ventricles are fluid filled cavities
What is the vasculature involved in the brain? Oxygen, glucose and blood brain barrier
Name some features of neurons Signaling and information processing, most neurons do not divide in adults (no repair)
What is in the cell body of neurons? Nucleus, nucleolus, cytoskeleton, Endoplasmic reticulum
What are NISSL bodies? Unique to neuronal cells
How is melanin related to Parkinson's disease? Melanin is found in a nucleus of the brain called the substanta nigra associated with Parkinson's disease
Where do axons tend to synaspe? On dendrites and transmit information to other neurons and targets
What color does the cell body(soma) stain? Euchromatic nucleus, stains lightly, uncoiled DNA
Are neurons multipolar? Yes, each dendritic branch coming off is considered to be a pole and the axon is considered to be another pole
What are Golgi Type 1 axons? Golgi Type 2? Type 1 is long axons and Type 2 is short axons
What type of axons do white matter have? Myelinated axons
What does gray matter have to contain? Neurons
In the brain are the axons deep to the gray matter? Yes, the gray matter is on the outer part
In the spinal cord are the axons deep to the gray matter? No, Gray matter are deep to the axons. The outer part is white matter
What is antergrade transport in neurons? From the cell body to dendrites along axon (Kinesin)
Waht is the retrograde transport in neurons? From the axon to cell body (Dynein)
What factors are involved in retrograde transport? Mitochondria, vesicles and trophic factors
What are trophic factors? Other proteins that may be release from post-synapic cells that are picked up by endocytosis by pre-synaptic cells and transported back to nucleus
What can be described as fast? Membrane associated proteins, vesicles, mitochondria, neuorfilaments and kinesin
What can be described as slow? Cytoskeletal, axoplasmic proteins and kinesins too
Where is the axon hillock? What does it do? Do organelles stay very long? It is between the soma and the axon, where action potentials are generated, no organelles stay very long
Describe an Electrical synapse Gap junctions; connexins involved driven by calcium to open and close
Describe exitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters Excitatory facilitates the generation of an action potential post-synaptically. Inhibitory depresses it
Do both presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic terminal contain vesicles? Presynaptic does and postsynaptic does not
What leads to fusion of vesicles with the presynaptic membrane? Calcium influx
When do vesicles release neurotransmitters? Where is it released to? After fusing they release it into the synapic cleft
Name examples of excitatory transmitters? Inhibitory Excitatory: Acetylcholine and Glutamate. Inhibitory: GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
What is the clathrin protein involved in? Vesicle recycling
Can neuronal cells be isolated without axons? No
Describe upper motor neurons Located in the cerebral cortex, they synaspe on top of lower motor neurons through interneurons activating the lower motor
What happens if you damage an upper motor neuron? Weakness
Describe lower motor neurons Located in the brain and spinal cord. Leave and synaspe on striated muscle
What happens if you damage lower motro neurons? Paralysis
Why are sensory neurons referred to as being pseudounipolor? They start out bipolar and become unipolar
Describe interneurons The are multipolar, interposed between upper motor and lower motor neurons
Where do the dorsal and ventral roots merge? In the spinal nerve
What are purkinje cells exclusive to? Exclusive to the cerebellum
Where are amacrine exclusive to? Exclusive to retina and contain no axon
Where are mitral cells found? In the olfactory system
Where are golgi cells found? In the cerebellum
What are granule cells unique to? Cerebellum (Predominate in Cerebellum)
Is the cerebellum the largest structure in the brain? No it's 2nd to cerebral cortex
What is on the outer molecular layer of the cerebellum? Purkinje cell dendrites and unmyelinated granule cells
What do granule cells synapse on? The dendrites of purkinje cells
Where is protein synthesis occuring? In the Nissl material
What is meant by axotomy? Axons are crushed
Where are the largest neurons located? In the ventral horn and are lower motor neurons
With Weigert stain (silver stain) what color do myelinated axons stain? Gray matter? Myelinated axons: stain black. Gray matter are unstained
Describe interoreceptors Sensory information from the internal organs or from visceral structures
Describe exterorecptors Deal with the exterior with the body such as taste, pressure, toch, pain, temp....
Describe proprioreceptors Allow for transmission of information for the location of your limbs and joints in space
Name skin receptors associated with touch Merkel disc and Meissner
Name skin receptors associated with pressure Ruffini and Pacinian
Describe the role of astrocytes and types in white and gray matter Fibrous: White matter. Protoplasmic: Gray matter. Astrocytes are involved in blood brain barrier. Suck up glutamate and separates damaged tissue from healthy tissue
Describe microglia Do not have a nuclear origin. They phagocytize dead neuronal material
Describe a difference between oligodendrocyte and schwann cell Oligo: 1 cell myelinates a portion of many axons. Schwann: 1 cell myelinates a portion of 1 axon
True or False: Short axons are myelinated False
True or False: Osmium stains myelin black True
True or False: All PNS axons are myelinated False. Some are loosely ensheathed by Schwann cells
The region between 2 myelin Internodal
Describe Node of Ranvier Between each myelinated segment where axon potential is regenerated
Describe glial limitans The end feet form a glial to surround entire CNS
What are some of the astrocytes betwen blood vessels and neuronal cells responsible for? For passing nutrients between the vasculature and neuronal cells
Name deadly brain tumors derived from glial cells Glioblastoma, Astrocytoma
True or False: Ventricular canals are found in adults False, only found in fetus
True or False: Ependyma+pia+vessels=choroid plexus True
Describe tubes of Schwann cells When there is cell damage, facilitate peripheral axonal regeneration called Bands of Bunder or Fiber bands
Describe the outer most layer of CNS Dura matter, thick, inelastic
Describe the Arachnoid Membrane Only on surface of the brain, attached to dura and trabecula. connect to pia. Has arachnoid processes
True or False: Pia can be peeled off the brain False. Pia follows the contour of the brain
What happens when an axon is cut? Dispersion of Nissl material, then it starts to regenerate



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