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*Special stains*

SPECIAL STAINS

QuestionAnswer
Detects presence of acid-fast mycobacteria in tissue sections Kinyoun acid-fast stain
lipoid capsule of acid-fast organism takes up carbol-fuchsin and resists decolorization w/dilute mineral acid Kinyoun acid-fast stain
is more soluble in the lipids of the cell wall than in acid-alcohol, is readily removed from bacteria that lack waxy capsule Carbol-fuchsin
Specific way of identifying mycobacteria Carbol-fuchsin method
Although 10% NBF is preferred, others m/b used, avoid carnoy Kinyoun acid-fast stain
4 to 5 microns Kinyoun acid-fast stain
control- tissue containing acid-fast organisms Kinyoun acid-fast stain
use millipore water in water bath Kinyoun acid-fast stain
negative control from same day work load must be run Kinyoun acid-fast stain
a section from a block of uterus provides good negative control Kinyoun acid-fast stain
overcountestaining w/methelyne blue will amsk any organisms present Kinyoun acid-fast stain
if section is overstained take it back to the acid-alcohol to remove methylene blue, wash with water and repeat counterstaining step Kinyoun acid-fast stain
If section is allowed to dry after the carbol fuchsin, a compound that resist decolorization will be formed. repeat attempts to remove compound results in complete decolorization Kinyoun acid-fast stain
fixatio in Carnoy solution will make acid-fast organisms non-acid-fast Kinyoun acid-fast stain
demonstrate acid mucopolysaccharides Alcian blue pH 2.5
alcian blue is a copper phthalocyanin basic dye that is water soluble and colored blue bcuz ofits copper content Alcian blue pH 2.5
forms salt linkages with the acid groups of acid mucopolysacchardes Alcian blue
when used in 3% acetic acid soluton (pH 2.5), alcian blue stains both sulfated and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides and sulfated and carboxylated sialomucins (glycogen) Alcian blue
Fixation 10%NBF or bouin Alcian blue pH 2.5
4 to 5 microns Alcian blue pH 2.5
control section of small intestine, appendix or colon (S.A.C) Alcian blue pH 2.5
Acid-fast bacteria- bright red Kinyoun acid-fast stain
Background - Light blue Kinyoun acid-fast stain
weakly acidic sulfated mucosubstances, hyaluronic acid and sialomucins - dark blue Alcian blue pH 2.5
background - pink to red Alcian blue pH 2.5
demonstrate sulfated mucosubstances Alcian blue pH 1.0
when used in a 0.1N hydrochloric acid solution (pH1.0) alcian blue stains only suflated acid mucopolysacchareds and sulfated sialomucins (glycogen) Alcian blue pH 1.0
acid mucopolysaccharrides and sialomucins that are carboxylated only will not be stained Alcian blue pH 1.0
Fixation 10% NBF or Bouin Alcian blue pH 1.0
4 to 5 microns Alcian blue pH 1.0
control - section of small intestine, appendix or colon (S.A.C.) Alcian blue pH 1.0
sulfated mucosubstances - Pale blue Alcian blue pH 1.0
Background - pink to red Alcian blue pH 1.0
differentiate epithelia and connective tissue mucins Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
staining will disappear or be dramtically reduced when tissue sections containing hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate A or chondroitin sulfate C (CT "mucin") are digested w/ testicular hyaluronidase Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
Fixation 10% NBF Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
4 to 5 microns Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
label slides one with w/o digestions one w/digestion Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
control - umbilical cord (with and without). small bowel, appendix or colon for second control to demonstrate epithelial mucins Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
w/o digestion, acid mucopolysaccharides and sialomucins - deep blue Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
w/digestion, mucosubstances containing hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate A and C - marked loss staining Alcian blue w/hyaluronidase
differentiate between neutral and acidic mucosubstances Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
acidic mucosubstances are stained w/alcian blue and neutral mucosubstances are stained by the PAS Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
Fixation 10% NBF or Zenker solution Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
4 to 5 microns Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
control - kidney or mucin control, depends on the diagnostic tissue to be stained Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
Exclusively acid mucosubstances - blue, neutral polysaccharides - magenta Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
Certain substances will be colored by both PAS and alcian blue - purple Alcian blue PAS hematoxylin
demonstrate carboxylated and sulfated mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins Muller-mowry colloidal iron
Colloidan ferric ions are, at a low pH, absored by carboxylated and sulfated mucosubstances Muller-mowry colloidal iron
Fixation 10% NBF, carnoy or alcoholic formalin, (AVOID CHROMATE FIXATIVES) Muller-mowry colloidal iron
4 to 5 microns Muller-mowry colloidal iron
control- section of small bowel, appendix or colon (S.A.C) Muller-mowry colloidal iron
acid mucopolysaccharides and sialomucins - deep blue Muller-mowry colloidal iron
nuclei - pink/red Muller-mowry colloidal iron
cytoplasm - pik Muller-mowry colloidal iron
Strongly acidic mucins that do not stain w/alcian blue also do not stain w/colloidal iron Muller-mowry colloidal iron
PAS stain can be used as a counter stain for this procedure Muller-mowry colloidal iron
PAS-positive material will be magenta, mixtures of neutral and acidic mucosubstances will be purple and acidic mucosubstances will be blue Muller-mowry colloidal iron
gives more intense color than alcian blue, colloidal iron is not consideres specific for acid mucopolysaccharides Muller-mowry colloidal iron
Hyaluronidase digestion can be used w/this procedure Muller-mowry colloidal iron
excellent for demonstration of cryptococcus neoformans Muller-mowry colloidal iron
some background stain maby be seen due to the presence of CT mucin Muller-mowry colloidal iron
if strong background staining is noted, fresh solutions should be prepared and stain should be repeated. Muller-mowry colloidal iron
demonstrate amyloid in tissue Alkaline congo red
Green birefringence following congo red stain, is considered most specific technique for demonstration of amyloid Alkaline congo red
false-positive results may be obtained Alkaline congo red
derives from benzidine, can react w/cellulose Congo red
resembles cellulose in its chemical reaction Amyloid
pretreatment w/alkali aids in the release of native internal hydrogen bonds between adjacent protein chains, as a result mre potential sites are available for dye binding Alkaline congo red
is a linear molecule, this allows azo and amine groups of the dye to form hydrogen bonds w/hydroxyl radicals of the amyloid Congo red
Fixation - Alcohol or Carnoy preferred, 10%NBF, Bouin, Zenker may be used, Alkaline congo red
Prolonged storage in 10% formalin will cause gradual decrease in staining intensity Alkaline congo red
cut 8 to 10 microns Alkaline congo red
if sections that are not between 8 to 10 microns, may not show green birefringence Alkaline congo red
control - section w/amyloid Alkaline congo red
don not keep too may control sections cut, as the staining intensity has been reported to decrease with age of the section Alkaline congo red
massive presumably long-standing deposits give less intense histochemical reaction than small, newly formed deposits Alkaline congo red
Amyloid - deep pink to red Alkaline congo red
elastic tissue - pale pink Alkaline congo red
Nuclei - blue Alkaline congo red
following congo red, bright apple-green birefringence exhibited under polarizing light is specific for amyloid Alkaline congo red
false-positive birefringence is caused by excess dye retained in the tissue Alkaline congo red
sodium chloride and high alcohol content present in dye, tend to depress dye ionization and acid-base type staining, results in a stained sectin w/a clean background Alkaline congo red
saturation of solutions is very important, follow instructions carefully Alkaline congo red
is an intrinsic property of the amyloid fibril-congo red complex and is a function of the parallel alignment of dye molecules and amyloid fibrils Green birefringence
section too thin, show red faint color Alkaline congo red
section too thick, show yellow birefringence Alkaline congo red
rapid screening for amyloid Crystal violet
"metachromatic" staining of amyloid is due to the mucopolysaccharide content Crystal violet
amyloid will induce only weak metachromasia w/thionine and toluidine blue Crystal violet
mixtures of basic dye Crystal violet and Methyl violet
Crystal violet and Methyl violet are mixtures of basic dye, amyloid selectively reacts with one of the dye components Crystal violet
the addition of acid to the stain solutions prevents overstaining of the cytoplasmic components Crystal violet
Fixative - 10% NBF or Alcohol Crystal violet
10 to 12 microns Crystal violet
control - section containing amyloid Crystal violet
Amyloid - purplish violet Crystal violet
Other tissue elements - blue Crystal violet
Bleeding) diffusion into surrounding mounting medium, of basic aniline dyes tends to occur w/aqueous mounting media Crystal violet
stained sections may be allowed to air dry completely then dip in xylene and mount w/synthetic resin Crystal violet
minimum of 5 hours staining time in working crystal violet solution, w/overnight stain providing the ultimate in staining of amyloid w/the crystal violet method Crystal violet
good method for amyloid not as specific as congo red w/polirization Thioflavine T
is a fluorescent dye that attaches to amyloid and requires no differentiation. Background nuclear fluorescence is suprese by staining w/aluminum hematoxylin Thioflavine T
Fixation - 10% NBF Thioflavine T
6 to 10 microns Thioflavine T
Control - section containing amyloid Thioflavine T
Amyloid- Fluoresces yellow to yellow-green Thioflavine T
Thioflavine T at acid pH increases selectivity of the dye for amyloid. A pH of 1.4 is recommended Thioflavine T
if prefered section must be mounted from water using Apathy mounting media Thioflavine T
lipid granules, jusxtaglomerular granules and mast cells may give a yellow fluorescence but should be differentiated easily from amyliod Thioflavine T
Stains epithelial mucins in tissue Mayer mucicarmine
emperical stain Mayer mucicarmine
aluminum forms a chelation complex with the carmine, resulting compound has a net positive charge and attaches to the acid group of the mucin Mayer mucicarmine
Fixation 10% NBF Mayer mucicarmine
Control - colon, small intestine, appendix (CASI) Mayer mucicarmine
4 to 5 microns Mayer mucicarmine
Mucin - deep rose/red Mayer mucicarmine
Capsule of cryptococcus - deep rose to red Mayer mucicarmine
Nuclei - black Mayer mucicarmine
other tissue elements - blue o yellow Mayer mucicarmine
carminophillic properties will be obscured if section is overstained with hematoxylin or metail yellow Mayer mucicarmine
anhydrous aluminum chloride should be under a hood. it reacts w/atmospheric moisture and water to give off vapors of hydrogen chloride Mayer mucicarmine
term used to describe intracellular secrections of a variety of cells Mucin
stain with basic dye, metachromatic, precipitated by acetic acid (except gastric mucin) soluble in alkaline solutions properties of mucin
appear to be microscopically similar, they differ in composition intracellular secretions
demonstrate polysaccharides, neutral mucosubstances and basement membranes PAS reaction
oxidation of certain tissue elements to aldehydes by periodic acid. PAS reaction
reactive group is the 1,2 glycol group, other groups are also oxidized PAS reaction
treat basic fuchsin w/sulfurous acid preparing schiffs reagent
reduction casues loss of quinoid structures and masking of the chromophores PAS reaction
colorless compound leucofuchsin
following schiffs reagent, washing in running water causes loss of the bound sulfurous acid group attached at teh centra carbon atom, restoration of quinoid structure in the dye bound tby the aldehyde and the visualization of the typical shiff color PAS reaction
Metabisulfate rinses are used to remove excess schiff reagent and prevent false colorization of the tissue elements due to oxidation of adsorbed reagent PAS reaction
Fixation - 10% NBF or Bouin. blood smears should be fixed in methyl alcohol for 10 to 15 minutes PAS reaction
4 to 5 microns PAS reaction
Control - section of kidney (most sensitive control). PAS reaction
if demonstrating glycogen use liver containing glycogen or a section of cervix(include both endo and ecto cervix) PAS reaction
Glycogen, neutral mucosubstances, certai epi sulfomucins and sialomucins, colloid material of thyroid, pars intermedia of pituitary, basement membranes, fungal walls All show a positive PAS raction (Bright rose)
schiff staining after periodate does not demonstrate presence of carbohydrate residues PAS reaction
abscence of staining doesnt mean tht carb residues are absent PAS reaction
number of available 1,2 glycol groups, reactivity of schiff reagent w/reaction product, structure of polymer, exact procedural reaction conditions intensitity of staining in routine PAS reaction is due to the folling factors
fast green counterstain m/b used instead of hematoxylin. when stain is used to demonstrate fungus PAS reaction
sulfite rinse essential to remove any uncombined leucofuchsin following exposure to schiff's reagent PAS reaction
highly chlorinated water is capable of oxidation. if section is transferred directly into tap water, any adsorbed schiff reagent m/b reoxidized to basic fuchsin,which may stain the section PAS reaction
for color development, wash in tap water after the sulfite rises PAS reaction
Glutaraldehyde not recommended form fixation, it might react with schiff's reagent PAS reaction
a control slide should be run through all steps of the procedure excep the periodate oxidation step PAS reaction - to determine if there is any previously reactive aldehyde groups present in the tissue
chromate-containing fixatives may overoxidize rective groups during fixation the resulting reaction with schiff reagent may be weak PAS reaction
Stains nerve fibers, nerve endings, neurofibrils Bodian
demonstrate polysaccharides, neutral mucosubstances and basement membranes PAS reaction
oxidation of certain tissue elements to aldehydes by periodic acid. PAS reaction
reactive group is the 1,2 glycol group, other groups are also oxidized PAS reaction
treat basic fuchsin w/sulfurous acid preparing schiffs reagent
reduction casues loss of quinoid structures and masking of the chromophores PAS reaction
colorless compound leucofuchsin
following schiffs reagent, washing in running water causes loss of the bound sulfurous acid group attached at teh centra carbon atom, restoration of quinoid structure in the dye bound tby the aldehyde and the visualization of the typical shiff color PAS reaction
Metabisulfate rinses are used to remove excess schiff reagent and prevent false colorization of the tissue elements due to oxidation of adsorbed reagent PAS reaction
Fixation - 10% NBF or Bouin. blood smears should be fixed in methyl alcohol for 10 to 15 minutes PAS reaction
4 to 5 microns PAS reaction
Control - section of kidney (most sensitive control). PAS reaction
if demonstrating glycogen use liver containing glycogen or a section of cervix(include both endo and ecto cervix) PAS reaction
Glycogen, neutral mucosubstances, certai epi sulfomucins and sialomucins, colloid material of thyroid, pars intermedia of pituitary, basement membranes, fungal walls All show a positive PAS raction (Bright rose)
schiff staining after periodate does not demonstrate presence of carbohydrate residues PAS reaction
abscence of staining doesnt mean tht carb residues are absent PAS reaction
number of available 1,2 glycol groups, reactivity of schiff reagent w/reaction product, structure of polymer, exact procedural reaction conditions intensitity of staining in routine PAS reaction is due to the folling factors
fast green counterstain m/b used instead of hematoxylin. when stain is used to demonstrate fungus PAS reaction
sulfite rinse essential to remove any uncombined leucofuchsin following exposure to schiff's reagent PAS reaction
highly chlorinated water is capable of oxidation. if section is transferred directly into tap water, any adsorbed schiff reagent m/b reoxidized to basic fuchsin,which may stain the section PAS reaction
for color development, wash in tap water after the sulfite rises PAS reaction
Glutaraldehyde not recommended form fixation, it might react with schiff's reagent PAS reaction
a control slide should be run through all steps of the procedure excep the periodate oxidation step PAS reaction - to determine if there is any previously reactive aldehyde groups present in the tissue
chromate-containing fixatives may overoxidize rective groups during fixation the resulting reaction with schiff reagent may be weak PAS reaction
Liver containing large amounts of glycogen should not be used as control for PAS reaction
demonstrate polysaccharides, neutral mucosubstances and basement membranes PAS reaction
oxidation of certain tissue elements to aldehydes by periodic acid. PAS reaction
reactive group is the 1,2 glycol group, other groups are also oxidized PAS reaction
treat basic fuchsin w/sulfurous acid preparing schiffs reagent
reduction casues loss of quinoid structures and masking of the chromophores PAS reaction
spirochetes and bacteria - brown to black dieterle
following schiffs reagent, washing in running water causes loss of the bound sulfurous acid group attached at teh centra carbon atom, restoration of quinoid structure in the dye bound tby the aldehyde and the visualization of the typical shiff color PAS reaction
Metabisulfate rinses are used to remove excess schiff reagent and prevent false colorization of the tissue elements due to oxidation of adsorbed reagent PAS reaction
Fixation - 10% NBF or Bouin. blood smears should be fixed in methyl alcohol for 10 to 15 minutes PAS reaction
4 to 5 microns PAS reaction
Control - section of kidney (most sensitive control). PAS reaction
if demonstrating glycogen use liver containing glycogen or a section of cervix(include both endo and ecto cervix) PAS reaction
Glycogen, neutral mucosubstances, certai epi sulfomucins and sialomucins, colloid material of thyroid, pars intermedia of pituitary, basement membranes, fungal walls All show a positive PAS raction (Bright rose)
schiff staining after periodate does not demonstrate presence of carbohydrate residues PAS reaction
abscence of staining doesnt mean tht carb residues are absent PAS reaction
number of available 1,2 glycol groups, reactivity of schiff reagent w/reaction product, structure of polymer, exact procedural reaction conditions intensitity of staining in routine PAS reaction is due to the folling factors
fast green counterstain m/b used instead of hematoxylin. when stain is used to demonstrate fungus PAS reaction
sulfite rinse essential to remove any uncombined leucofuchsin following exposure to schiff's reagent PAS reaction
highly chlorinated water is capable of oxidation. if section is transferred directly into tap water, any adsorbed schiff reagent m/b reoxidized to basic fuchsin,which may stain the section PAS reaction
for color development, wash in tap water after the sulfite rises PAS reaction
Glutaraldehyde not recommended form fixation, it might react with schiff's reagent PAS reaction
a control slide should be run through all steps of the procedure excep the periodate oxidation step PAS reaction - to determine if there is any previously reactive aldehyde groups present in the tissue
chromate-containing fixatives may overoxidize rective groups during fixation the resulting reaction with schiff reagent may be weak PAS reaction
Liver containing large amounts of glycogen should not be used as a control, the reaction can be weak but still very apparent PAS reaction
reagent problems are apparent if a sectio n of kidney is used a s a control, when the reaction is intended for substances other than glycogen PAS reaction
demosntrates glycogen in tissue PAS W/diastase
very sensitive histochemical method for glycogen. diastase and amylase act on glycogen to depolymerize it into smaller units that are washed out of the section. PAS W/diastase
Fixation - 10% NBF PAS W/diastase
4 to 5 microns PAS W/diastase
control - section of liver containing glycogen, label with and without diastase PAS W/diastase
contorl - cervix is also an excellent control (including both endo and ectocervix) PAS W/diastase
Glycogen will stain brigh rose on section labeld without and will be absent from section labeled with PAS W/diastase
glycogen fixed in picric acid containing fixatives may be more resistant to diastase digestion PAS W/diastase
stratified squamous epi of the ectocervix (glycogen) and glands of the endocervix (mucin) will show a positive schiff reaction on slides without digestion, PAS W/diastase
on slides with digestion, the stratified squamous epi will be negative while the gland of the endocervix remain positive PAS W/diastase
used to differntiate between collagen nd smooth muscle in tumors and identify inreasees in collagenous tissue in disease such as cirrhosis of the liver Masson trichrome stain
Thicrhome = three dyes Masson trichrome stain
sections are stained w/ acid dyes, acidophillic elements like, cytoplasm, muscel, collagen wil bind w/acid dyes Masson trichrome stain
sections are treated with phosphotungsic or phosphomolybdic acids Masson trichrome stain
cytoplasm is less permealbe than collagen, phosphotungsic acid and phosphomolybdic acids cause biebrich scarlet to diffuse out the collagen but not the cytoplasm Masson tricrhome stain
have numerous acid groups that most likely act as a link between the decolirzed collagen and aniline blue, the collagen dye phosphotungsic and phosphomolybdic acids
pH of phosphotungsic/phosphomolybdic acids solution increases selectivity of collagen staining and aids in diffusion or removal of biebrich scarlet Masson trichrome stain
Fixation - bouin is preferred, 10% NBF may be used Masson trichrome stain
4 to 5 microns Masson trichrome stain
Control - every tissue has internal contorl, no other control sections are needed Masson trichrome stain
control - if a control is desired, use uterus, small intestine, appendix or fallopian tube Masson trichrome stain
Nuclei - black Masson trichrome stain
Cytoplasm, keratin, muscle fibers - red Masson trichrome stain
Collagen and mucus - blue Masson trichrome stain
collagen may be stained with light green instead of aniline blue Masson trichrome stain
light green is better counter stain when collagen is predominent, when small amounts are to be demonstrated aniline blue is better Masson trichrome stain
decreased red staining indicates the staining solution has aged or overused, should be discarded Masson trichrome stain
If blue staining of CT tissue appears faded, section has been overdifferentiated in acetic acid Masson trichrome stain
altered collagen (burns) may lose affinity for aniline blue and bind to the acid dye instead Masson trichrome stain
Picric acid w/less than 10% water is very explosive, its important that solution not be spilled in oven and allowed to evaporate Masson trichrome stain
staining jar containing picric acid should be placed inside another container while in oven Masson trichrome stain
iron hematoxylin is used for nuclear staining in trichrome procedure bcuz iron hematoxylin is more resistant than aluminum hematoxylin to decolorization b in acidic dye solution Masson trichrome stain
Nuclei - dark blue Masson trichrome stain
cytoplasm, keratin, muscle fibers - red Masson trichrome stin
collagen and mucus - blue Masson trichrome stain
indentify increase in collagenous CT fibers or differentiate between collagen and smooth muscle fibers Gomori one step trichrome
plasma stain and CT fiber stain are combined in a soludtion of phosphotungsic acid to which glacial acetic acid has been added Gomori one step trichrome
phosphotungsic acid favors the red staining of the muscle and cytoplasm. Gomori one step trichrome
The tungstate ion is taken up by collagen and the CT fiber stain is subsequently bound to this complex, coloring the collagen green or blue, Gomori one step trichrome
Fixation - any well fixed tissue may be used, Bouin solution is used as a mordant to intensify the color reactions. Gomori one step trichrome
4 to 5 microns Gomori one step trichrome
Control - every tissue has internal contorl, no other control sections are needed Gomori one step trichrome
control - if a control is desired, use uterus, small intestine, appendix or fallopian tube Gomori one step trichrome
Nuclei - black Gomori one step trichrome
cytoplasm, keratin, muscle fibers - red Gomori one step trichrome
Collagen and mucus - green or blue Gomori one step trichrome
used to demonstrate pathological changes in elastic tissue Verhoeff elastic stain
demonstrates atrophy of tissue, thinnin/loss that results from arteriosclrotic changes and reduplicarion, breaks/splitting from vascular disease. Verhoeff elastic stain
also used to demonstrate normal elastic tissue like identification of veins and arteries to determine if the blood vessels are invaded by tumors Verhoeff elastic stain
tissue is overstained w/soluble lake hematoxylin-ferric chloride-iodine. Verhoeff elastic stain
ferric chloride and iodine serve as mordants, they also have oxidizing function that assists in convervting hematoxylin to hematein Verhoeff elastic stain
this method requires that sections be overstained and then differentiated it is REGRESSIVE Verhoeff elastic stain
differentiation is accomplished by using excess mordant, ferrich chloride, to break the tissue-mordant-dye lake complex Verhoeff elastic stain
breaking the tissue-mordant-dye lake complex allows other elements to be decolorized and the elastic fibers to remain stained Verhoeff elastic stain
sodium thiosulfate is used to remove excess iodine. van Gieson solution is most commonly used counterstain. others m/b used Verhoeff elastic stain
Fixation - any well-fixed tissue m/b used. neutral buffered formalin or zenker is preferred Verhoeff elastic stain
4 to 5 microns Verhoeff elastic stain
control - aorta embedded on edge or cross section of large artery Verhoeff elastic stain
elastic fibers - blue-black to black Verhoeff elastic stain
Nuclei - blue to black Verhoeff elastic stain
Collagen - red Verhoeff elastic stain
other tissue elements - yellow Verhoeff elastic stain
easy to overdifferntiate this stain Verhoeff elastic stain
overdifferentiated sections m/b restained at any step, if the have not been treated w/alcohol Verhoeff elastic stain
dont prolong staining w/van Gieson, as picric acid also will differentiate the stain further Verhoeff elastic stain
not necessary to remove mercury deposits, they will be removed by staining solution Verhoeff elastic stain
preparation of van Gieson solution is critical for proper differentiation of muscle and collagen Verhoeff elastic stain
if picric acid is not saturated, collagen will not stain red and cytoplasm, muscle and collagen may all stain the same color Verhoeff elastic stain
To prepare Verhoeff elastic stain solution, the reagents must be added in the order give w/mixing after each addition or poor stain w/result Verhoeff elastic stain
for optimum results, slides must be individually differentiated, as time of differentiation is some what dependent on amount of elastic tissue present Verhoeff elastic stain
dont depend on control for timing the differentiation of all sections Verhoeff elastic stan
Bcuz proper differentiation is sometimes difficult, it is helpful to use duplicate sections differentiated to a slightly different end point Verhoeff elastic stain
used to demonstrate pathological changes in elastic tissue Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
also used to demonstrate normal elastic tissue like identification of veins and arteries to determine if the blood vessels are invaded by tumors Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
Hydrochloric acid and paraldehyde are added to an alcoholic solutin of basic fuchsin to form aldehyde fuchsin Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
schiff bases are formed by aldehyde and the fuchsin, but the affinity of elastic fibrs for this solution is not understood Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
other tissue elements will also stain, includes pancreatic beta cell granules and sulfated mucosubstances. staining is intensified by prior oxidation Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
Fixation - neutral buffered formalin preferred. Chormate fixatives should be avoided Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
Formalin and bouin fixed tissues will show a colorless background. mercury fixed tissue will show a pale lilac background Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
4 to 5 microns Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
Control - section of aorta embedded on edge or a cross section of large artery. skin also provides good control Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
elastic fibers - deep blue to purple Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
Other tissue elements - Green Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
paraldehyde used for preparation of aldehyde fuchsin should be fresh Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
old solution of aldehyde fuchsin doesnot stain well, staining time may need to be prolonged Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
do not use rosanili, it is nt satisfactory Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
shelf life aldehyde fuchsin may be prolonged by refrigerating a small amount and freezing aliquots of the remainder Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
acetaldehyde may be used in place of paraldehyde, acetaldehyde is chaper and may be obtained without a DEA number Aldehyde fuchsin elastic stain
demonstrate reticular fibers in tissue, important in differential dx of certain types of tumors Gomori stain for reticular fibers
a change from normal reticular fiber pattern, seen in some liver disease Gomori stain for reticular fibers
hexose sugars of reticulin are demonstrated by oxidation Gomori stain for reticular fibers
potassium permangenate is oxidizing agent in this procedure and excess is removed by potassium metabisulfate Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Ferric ammomium sulfate acts as the sensitizer and is replaced by silver from the diamine silver solution Gomori stain for reticular fibers
following impregnation formalin is used to reduce the silver to its visible metallic form Gomori stain for reticular fibers
toning with gold chloride and removal of unreacted silver with soidum thiosulfate. the final step is a counterstain if desired Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Fixation - 10% NBF Gomori stain for reticular fibers
4 to 5 microns Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Control - liver Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Reticulin - black Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Collagen - Taupe Gomori stain for reticular fibers
a hint of turbidity should remain in the silver solution Gomori stain for reticular fibers
excess of ammonia decrases the sensitivity and results in incomplete impregnation of reticular fibers Gomori stain for reticular fibers
for good reticulin demonstration, rinse between the diamine silver solution and the formaldehyde Gomori stain for reticular fibers
if wash is prolonged, staining of the reticulin will be reduced and if its insufficient there will be excessive background staining Gomori stain for reticular fibers
glassware m/b chemically cleaned w/comercial cleaning agents or bleach Gomori stain for reticular fibers
the older cleaining method of using a mix of sulfuric acid and potassium dichromate is no longer used bcuz of hazards Gomori stain for reticular fibers
use plastic forceps in this method Gomori stain for reticular fibers
aka iron alum. ferric ammonium slufate
term used for salts that are double or bisulfates, like potassium aluminum sulfate, ammonium aluminum sulfate, chromium potassuim sulfate, and ferric ammonium sulfate Alum
if nuclear fast red is the counterstain, wash the sildes well w/water after staining Gomori stain for reticular fibers
if slides are not transfered from counterstain directly to alcohol, they will develop a cloudiness, that can be removed by backing the slide up to water Gomori stain for reticular fibers
pattern of reticular fiber staining is very important, should be seen easy w/scanning lens of microscope (liver bx) Gomori stain for reticular fibers
a guide to the quality of the stain is the easy visualization of reticulin pattern w/x 10 objective Gomori stain for reticular fibers
counterstain, may obscure the easy visualization and therefore should not ve used when visualization of this pattern is important Gomori stain for reticular fibers
If silver stain of nuclei is a problem, fix by using acetified potassium permanganate Gomori stain for reticular fibers
if ammonium hydroxide looses strength, due to loss of ammonia from solution, open a fresh bottle Gomori stain for reticular fibers
decrease in ammonia is noticed bcz more than the usual ammount of ammonium hydroxide is required Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Chukurian uses ammonical silver solution for several days,storing it in fridge and brining it to room temp before use Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Chukurian feels reticulin stains better after ammonical silver has aged for a few days Gomori stain for reticular fibers
ammonical silver may form explosive compound, use care in preparation, use and storage of this solution Gomori stain for reticular fibers
storage in regrigerator retards formation of explosive compound, avoid exposure to direct sunlight ammonical silver solution
deposit of silver should be in a linear pattern Gomori stain for reticular fibers
Demonstrate muscle cross striations and fibrin Mallory PTAH
are a dx feature of rhabdomyosarcomas or tumors arising form striated muscle. cross-striations
Nemaline present in some skeletal muscle dx, may also be demonstrated by this method Mallory PTAH
amount of phosphotunstic acid in the staining solution is greater than the amount of hematein Mallory PTAH
tungsten binds all available hematein to give a blue-colored lake Mallory PTAH
metal hematein lake stains selected tissue components blue, while the phosphotungstic acid is thought to stain the red-brown components Mallory PTAH
This stain is referred to as a polychrome stain bcuz one solutin gives two major colors Mallory PTAH
components colored red-brown will lose this color with wateror prolonged alcohol washes, and therefore dehydration of section following staining must be rapid Mallory PTAH
Fixation - Zenker preferred, 10% NBF m/b used Mallory PTAH
4 to 6 microns Mallory PTAH
control - skeletal or cardiac muscle to demonstrate cross striations, Mallory PTAH
control - section containing fibrin for demonstration of fibrin, or secion of cerebral cortex (not spinal cord) for demonstration of glial fibers Mallory PTAH
Cross-striations , fibrins - blue Mallory PTAH
Nuclei - Blue Mallory PTAH
Collagen - red/brown Mallory PTAH
PTAH has been replaced by IHC, although fibrin will stain well after formaldehyde fixation Mallory PTAH
you get better results if tissue is fixed in Zenker on in a solution containing mercury Mallory PTAH
stain is not as good when formalin fixed sections are mordanted as wehn original fixative is mercuric Mallory PTAH
uneven staining occurs in formalin fixed tissue Mallory PTAH
chemically oxidized staining solution has a shorter shelf life than naturally ripened staining solution bcz chemical oxidation may cause overoxidation. Mallory PTAH
when this occurs there is failure to show proper density of th blue tones. chemical oxidation may cause over oxidation.
solutions should be stored in amber glass bottles to retard overoxidation by light Mallory PTAH
thorough washing of section before staining is essential, as hydration of tissue structures will greatly facilitate uptake of dye molecules Mallory PTAH
sodium thiosulfate interferes w/binding of the PTAH, sections should be washe very well after application of sodium thiosulfate Mallory PTAH
delineates glomerular basement membranes Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
Methenamine silver demonstrates carbohydrate component of basement membrane by oxidizing the carbs to aldehydes Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
in silver tecnique for staining basement membrane, silver ions from the methenamine silver complex are first bound to carb compnents of basement membrane and then reduced to visible metallic silver by aldehyde group Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
toning is done with gold chloride and any unreduced silver is removed by sodium thiosulfate Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
Fixation - 10% NBF preferred, mercury containing fixatives not recommended Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
paraffin processed tissue cut at 2 microns Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
Control - kidney has an internal control. no other control slide is necessary Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
Basement membrane - black Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
Background - green Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
sharper staining of basement membrane and less background staining can be obtained with the use of microwave oven for silver stain Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
temp is critical and should be below boiling, 95C, immediately after removal from oven. Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
each oven should be calibrated for the time required to reach the correct temperature Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
very difficult stain to perform correctly Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
glomerular basement membrane should appear as continuous black line. stopping silver impregnation too soon results in uneven or interupted stain Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
application of too much counterstain will mask the silver stain and decrease contrast Periodic acid-methenamine silver microwave (PAMS)
demonstrate neutral lipids in frozen sections. Oil red O
demonstrates fat occuring in abnormal places, such as fatty emboli that develop after bone fracture or injury that crushes fatty body area Oil red O
fat verifies that emboli caused death Oil red O
degenarating material containing fat, like cell membranes or myelin, may gro into fat droplets that are demonstrable with fat stain Oil red O
tumors arising from fat cells (liposarcomas) can be differentiated from others with Oil red O
staining with oil-soluble dye is based on greater solubility of the dye in the lipoid substances than in the usual hydroalcoholic dye solvent Oil red O
this is a physical method of staining Oil red O
dyes used must be more soluble in tissue lipid than in the solvent, must not be water soluble, m/b strongly colored, act w/tissue constituents by solution Oil red O
solvent used is critical, w/isopropanol removing a minimal amount of lipid and propylene glycol not extracting any lipid Oil red O
Fixation 10% NBF or calcium-formal, alcoholic fixatives should not be used, bcz of their lipid dissolving ability Oil red O
cut frozen sections at 10 microns Oil red O
Paraffin sections cant be used bcuz dehydrating and clearing agents dissolve the fat Oil red O
if free-floating sections arnot used, sections of fixed tissue should be picked up on coated or subbed slides Oil red O
Control- most tissue contain fat, a control isnot used Oil red O
Fat - intense red Oil red O
Nuclei - Blue Oil red O
to improve microtomy of FZ, formalin fixed tissue may be infiltrated with 30% sucrose before freezing Oil red O
aqueous mounting media must be used, organic solvent present in synthetic resinous media wll disolve fat Oil red O
fat in section is relatively liquid and mobile, care should be taken so that no pressure is placed on the coverglss or the fat will be displaced Oil red O
if air bubbles are present in section, remove cover slip by soaking the slide in warm water Oil red O
If glycerine jelly is used for mountin, it should not be overheated, this may melt the fat and displace it Oil red O
stain should be done at 60 degrees celsius Oil red O
Demonstrates fungus Grocott methanamine silver
Control section w/fungs, Pneunmocytis use pneumocytis control Grocott methanamine silver
Principle - Polysaccharides in fungal cell wall oxidize to aldehyde by chromic acid Grocott methanamine silver
Mucin - taupe to gray Grocott methanamine silver
Background - green Grocott methanamine silver
Fixation - 10% NBF Grocott methanamine silver
4 to 5 microns Grocott methanamine silver
chemically cleaned glassware and nonmetallic forceps must be used Grocott methanamine silver
Demonstrates spirochetes, hpylori, legionela and cat scratch fever Steiner and Steiner
Principle - argyrophilic method, organisms have ability to adsorb silver ions but not reduce the silver to a visible form, a chemical reducer hydroquinone is used for that purpose Steiner and Steiner
Legionella, hpylori, spirochetes, pneumophila, and other bacteria - dark brown to black Steiner and Steiner
Background - light yellow Steiner and Steiner
demonstrate spirochetes Warthin starry
Principle - argyrophilic method, spirochetes have ability to bind silver ions but not reduce the silver to a visible form, a chemical reducer hydroquinone is used for this purpose Warthin starry
spirochetes - black Warthin starry
Other bacteria - black Warthin starry
Background - Pale yellow to light brown Warthin starry
Control - section with spirochetes Warthin starry
indication of reducing substances present in tissue. Melanin, argentaffin granules and formalin pigments w/b stained Schmorl
reduces substances present in tissue. reduce the ferric ions present in staining solution to ferrous ions. Schmorl
The ferrous ions combine w/t ferricyanide present in the staining solution to form a precipitate of ferrous ferricyanide (turnbull blue Schmorl
Control - seciont w/ melanin or agentaffin granules Schmorl
Reagents: Ferric Chloride stock solution, Potassium Ferricyanied stock solution, Ferric chloride-potassium ferricyaide working solution, mayer mucicarmine, metanil yellow Schmorl
silver proteinate is usted to impregnate tissue sections, copper is added to the impregnating solution to "destain" connective tissue allows differtiation neural vx CT elements Bodian
6 to 8 Bodian
demonstrate nerve fibers and nurofibrils Holmes silver nitrate method
argyrophil method, requires chemical reduction.Gold chloride, oxalic acid,sodium thiosulfate Holmes silver nitrate method
is more soluble in the lipids of cell wall than acid alcohol, but is readily removed from bacterias that lack the waxy capsule Carbol fuchsin (kinyoun)
staining is enhanced by phenol and alchol, both of these chemicals help to disolve the basic fuchsin Kinyoun acid fast stain
identify mycobacteria Carbol fuchsin (kinyoun)
makes acid fast organisms non-acid carnoy
lipoid capsule of mycobacteria is of high molecular weight. It is waxy at room temp, successful penetration by aqueous based staining solutions in gram staining is prevented Kinyoun acid fast stain
overcounterstaining w/methylene blue will mask any organisms Kinyoun acid fast stain
wash out acid before counterstaining or tissue will not stain Kinyoun acid fast stain
This method is not satisfactory for mycobacterium leprea Kinyoun acid fast stain
if the section is allowed to dry after carbol fuchsin application, a compound resistant to decolorization w/b formed Kinyoun acid fast stain
detect presence of acid-fast mycobacteria Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
lipoid capsule of acid-fast organism takes up carbol-fuchsin and resists decolorization w/dilute mineral acid Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
acid fast bacteria - bright red, background - light blue Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
This carbol-fuchsin method is preferred Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
detect the presence of mycobacterium leprea (leprosy) Fite acid-fast stain
lipoid capsule of organism takes up carbol fuchsin and resists decolorization with dilue mineral acid Fite acid-fast stain
norcadia will also stain with Fite acid-fast stain
fixation any except carnoy Fite acid-fast stain
acid fastness of leprosy organism is enhanced when the waxy capsule is protected by the mixutre of peanut oil and xylene. avoid dehydration solutions Fite acid-fast stain
detect mycobacteria tuberculosis or other acid fast organisms Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
the exact mechanism of the stain is unknown. both of the dyes use basic dyes that fluoresce at short wave lengths. when both dyes are used toghether, they yield a better stain Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
is more soluble in the lipids of cell wall than acid alcohol, but is readily removed from bacterias that lack the waxy capsule Carbol fuchsin (kinyoun)
staining is enhanced by phenol and alchol, both of these chemicals help to disolve the basic fuchsin Kinyoun acid fast stain
identify mycobacteria Carbol fuchsin (kinyoun)
makes acid fast organisms non-acid carnoy
lipoid capsule of mycobacteria is of high molecular weight. It is waxy at room temp, successful penetration by aqueous based staining solutions in gram staining is prevented Kinyoun acid fast stain
overcounterstaining w/methylene blue will mask any organisms Kinyoun acid fast stain
wash out acid before counterstaining or tissue will not stain Kinyoun acid fast stain
This method is not satisfactory for mycobacterium leprea Kinyoun acid fast stain
if the section is allowed to dry after carbol fuchsin application, a compound resistant to decolorization w/b formed Kinyoun acid fast stain
detect presence of acid-fast mycobacteria Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
lipoid capsule of acid-fast organism takes up carbol-fuchsin and resists decolorization w/dilute mineral acid Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
acid fast bacteria - bright red, background - light blue Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
This carbol-fuchsin method is preferred Ziehl-neelsen method for acid fast bacteria
detect the presence of mycobacterium leprea (leprosy) Fite acid-fast stain
lipoid capsule of organism takes up carbol fuchsin and resists decolorization with dilue mineral acid Fite acid-fast stain
norcadia will also stain with Fite acid-fast stain
fixation any except carnoy Fite acid-fast stain
acid fastness of leprosy organism is enhanced when the waxy capsule is protected by the mixutre of peanut oil and xylene. avoid dehydration solutions Fite acid-fast stain
detect mycobacteria tuberculosis or other acid fast organisms Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
the exact mechanism of the stain is unknown. both of the dyes use basic dyes that fluoresce at short wave lengths. when both dyes are used toghether, they yield a better stain (auramine O, rhodamine B) Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
false-positive may occure Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
slides stained with auramine O-rhodamine c/b restained with carbol-fuchsin for confirmation if the results are questionable Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
this method is more likely to stain dead or dying organisms than the carbol-fuchsin Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
use small amounts of Rhodamine B it will intesify the fluorescence of mycobacteria. too much Rhodamine B will quench fluoresence, even in low concentration Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
fluorescence micropscopy is not satisfactory after fixation in solutions w/heavy metals. heavy metals tend to quench the primary fluorescence of the specimen Auramine-Rhodamine fluorescence
Modification of Gram Brown-Hopps
to demonstrate Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in tissue Brown-Hopps
crystal violet is applied first followed by an iodine mordant forming a dye lake. Brown-Hopps
both have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Brown-Hopps)
the wall of gram-positive bacteria is thicker than the wall of gram-negative organisms Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Brown-Hopps)
contains a layer of lipopolysaccharide external to cell wall gram-negative bacteria (Brown-Hopps)
cannot be washed out of the peptidoglycan layer of gram positive cells large crystal violet-iodine comlex
can be removed from gram-negative bacteria, bcuz alcohol and acetone disrupt the outer lipopolysaccharide layer large crystal violet-iodine comlex
this method is preferred for staining gram-negative organisms and ricketssiae Brown-Hopps
this is a useful method for for screening of infectious agents that cause actinomycosis, nocardiosis, coccidiomucosis, blastomycosis, aspergillosis, rhinosporidiosis and amebiasis Brown-Hopps
gram-positive bacteria -blue, gram-negative bacteria -red, background -yellow, nuclei -light red Brown-Hopps
can be used for the demonstration of bacteria, ricketssias and toxoplasma gondii. Giemsa
identification of helicobacter pylory Modified diff quick Giemsa
the Romanowsky stains "neutral" dyes combining the basic dye methylene blue and the acid dye eosin. methylene blue and eosin give a wide color range when staining tissues and blood smears. Modified diff quick Giemsa
hpylori - dark blue, other bacteria -blue, nuclei -dark blue, cytoplasm -pink Modified diff quick Giemsa
demonstrate fungi in tissue Hotchkiss-Mcmanus Pas reaction
"carbohydrates". polysaccharides present in fungal cell walls are oxidized by periodic acid to aldehyes. the aldehydes react w/schiffs reagent to yield a rose colored fungi Hotchkiss-Mcmanus Pas reaction
fungi -rose, background -green Hotchkiss-Mcmanus Pas reaction
when staining for fungus, the green counterstain provides better contrast Hotchkiss-Mcmanus Pas reaction
it is helpful to use diastase digestion in sections containing glycogen Hotchkiss-Mcmanus Pas reaction
oxidizing and schiffs reagent must not be overused or you will get a poor stain Hotchkiss-Mcmanus Pas reaction
demonstrates fungus in tissue Gridley
this is a modification of Bauer Gridley
use chromic acid to oxidize adjacent glycol groups to aldehydes. the aldehydes react w/schiffs reagent. aldehyde fuchsin acts as an aldehyde and occupies uninvolved linkages to schiffs. Gridley
is a stronger oxidizing agent than periodic acid. it further attacks and destroys aldehydes chromic acid
very old nonviable fungus doesnot stain well with this technique as with GMS Gridley
sulforous acid rinse m/b used after schiffs Gridley
coccidioides immitis Gridley
melanin granules, chromatin, formalin pigments and foreign material present in macrophage will stain brown to black, dieterle
QC- tissue containing, hpylori, legionella, pneumophila Steiner and Steiner
chromic acid is a strong oxidant. it oxidizes many newly released aldehyde groups. it breaks down products that will not react. this helps to suppress the weak background reactions of collagen fibers and basement membranes chromic acid (GMS)
fungal cell walls, glycogen and mucins are substances that hvae large quantities of polysaccharide. they remain reactive with methanamine silver reducing it to visible metallic silver Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
Methanamine gives the solution the alkaline properties necessary for proper reaction, and sodium borate acts as the buffer. gold chloride tones, and sodium thiosulfate removes unreduced silver Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
QC- if staining for pneumocystis. use pneumocystis control Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
background -pale yellow, or tan dieterle
Methanamine silver decomposess at higher temperatures Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
Gluteraldehyde should be avoided. Bcuz teh free aldehyde groups reduce the silver and give w/g you nonspecific staining Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
failing to remove alc used in deparaffination and hydration w/result in reduction of chromic acid. this causes the color to change from orange to brown. Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
it requires takes longer for p carnii to stain. if unsure of what you are staining for, use a p carni control Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
a water bath instead of oven should be used Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
do not overheat silver or breaking down of solution will occur and staining m/b nonspecific Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
may be used to demonstrate fungi, p Carinii, Actinomyces and related species, Nocardia asteroides and certain encapsulated bacteria Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
bcuz of toxicity of chromic acid, periodic acid m/b used however, false negatives m/b obtained. Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
sections that have been stained using other methods m/b used with GMS. Any exisiting stain w/b removed by chromic acid Grocott Methanamine-silver nitrate
Rapid method, useful on cytospin preparations or on F.S. for dx of Pneumocystis carinii. is also good as a more routine procedure Microwave Methanamine-silver nitrate procedure
fixation: cytospin -95%alc, F.S. -40%formaldehyde, paraffin sections fxd 10%NBF Microwave Methanamine-silver nitrate procedure
F.s 6um, parrafin 4 to 5Um Microwave Methanamine-silver nitrate procedure
place plastic coplin jars in loosely closed plastic bag in the microwave oven. any solution that boils over will be left in the bag Microwave Methanamine-silver nitrate procedure
reticular fibers, rbc's, and other tissue w/stain if the slides are left in methanamine-silver to long. this nonspecific staining will mimic the appearance of fungi and will also obscure any fungi that is present Microwave Methanamine-silver nitrate procedure
chromic acid is very toxic. instead of microwaving, oxidation c/b done at 58C for 10 minutes. Microwave Methanamine-silver nitrate procedure
demonstrate the capsule of cryptococcus Mayers mucicarmine and alcian blue
the mucoid capsule of cryptococcus neoforma c/b differentiated form other yeast like fungi of similar size and shape Mayers mucicarmine and alcian blue
if sections over developed, treat with iodine and sodium thiosulfate for color removal Warthin starry
all bacteria are nonselectively blackened by silver impregnation methods, Warthin starry, Dieterle, and Steiner and Steiner
demonstrate small, wealky gram negative bacterial such as legionella. Warthin starry, Dieterle, and Steiner and Steiner
provide much greater sensitivity twhen screening for small numbers of gram pos and gram neg bacteria silver impregnation
demonstrate spirochete and other bacteria in tissue microwave modification of warthin starry
alipia felis (cat scratch bacillus)-black, legionella pneumophila -black, nocardia asteroides -black, hpylori -black, nuclei brown, erythrocytes -brown microwave modification of warthin starry
results are more consistent and reliable when staining and developing are done at lowest power levels microwave modification of warthin starry
spirochetes are not well demonstrated by this method microwave modification of warthin starry
demonstrates spirochetes or the causitive organisms of legionellosis dieterle
spirochetes are argyrophilic, the will adsorb silver from a silver solution but the adsorbed silver must be chemically reduced to visible metallic form. Hydroquinone is the reducing agent/developer dieterle
QC-tissue containing spirochetes or legionella dieterle
considered a primary CT stain, but rarely used. Its an excellent counterstain for other methods such as Verhoeff elastic Van Gieson Picric Acid-Acid Fuchsin Stain
in strongly acidic solution, collagen is stained by acid fuchsin. picric acid provides pH and acts a s the stain for muscle and cytoplasm. addding hydrochloric acid helps to sharpen the differntiation btwn collagen and muscle Van Gieson Picric Acid-Acid Fuchsin Stain
demonstrate mucin, fibrin, elastic fibers, muscle and collagen Russell modification of the movat pentachrome stain
acidic mucosubstances are stained by AB. the alkaline alcohol solution coverts the AB to Moastral fast blue, which is insoluble.Iron hematoxylin is used to stain elastic fibers which are then differentiated w/ferric chloride, Russell modification of the movat pentachrome stain
uses potassium ferrOcyanide Prussian blue
Uses potassium ferrIcyanide Turnbull blue
Created by: nperez