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Fixatives

Fixatives Chapter One

QuestionAnswer
37-40% Formaldehyde, distilled water 10% Aqueous formalin
Hypotonic 10% Aqueous formalin
May produce formalin pigments 10% Aqueous formalin
37-40% formaldehyde, calcium chloride, distilled water Calcium formalin
REcommended to fix and preserve phospholipids Calcium formalin
37-40% formaldehyde, ammonium bromide, distilled water Formalin Ammonium Bromide
acid in nature Formalin Ammonium Bromide
Recommeded for tissue of the CNS especially for the Cajal stain Formalin Ammonium Bromide
Lyses RBC's Formalin Ammonium Bromide
causes nuclei to give a positive schiff's reaction due to the feulgen hydrolysis fixation Formalin Ammonium Bromide
37-40% Formaldehyde, Sodium acetate, distilled water Acetate Formalin
This is one of the better formaldehyde solutions to use if one does not want to use a buffered reagent Acetate Formalin
37-40% Formaldehyde, distilled water, calcium or magnesium carbonate 10% Neutralized formalin
Solution becomes acidic after withdrawal from the storage bottle 10% Neutralized formalin
37-40% Formaldehyde, distilled water, sodium phosphate monobasic, sodium phosphate dibasic 10% Neutral Buffered formalin
Recommended for routine formalin fixation 10% Neutral Buffered formalin
Hypotonic 10% Neutral Buffered formalin
pH is approximately 6.8 10% Neutral Buffered formalin
37-40% Formaldehyde, distilled water, sodium phosphate monobasic, sodium hydroxide Modified millonig formalin
Isotonic Modified millonig formalin
pH is around 7.2-7.4 Modified millonig formalin
has a dual purpose it can alsco act as a fixative for electron microscopy Modified millonig formalin
Less cellular elements are extracted making paraffin sectioning more difficult Modified millonig formalin
37-40% formaldehyde, absolute ethyl alcohol, distilled water Alcoholic formalin
useful as a fixative on tissue processorsbecause it also begins dehydrating tissue Alcoholic formalin
Sodium phsophate monobasic, sodium hydroxide, distilled water, gluteraldehyde Gluteraldehyde
Make up before using Gluteraldehyde
Most frequently used as a fixative for electronmicroscopy as prolonged fixation hardens tissues (two hours or less) Gluteraldehyde
is an aldehyde like formalin but it is a dialdehyde Gluteraldehyde
One aldehyde group cross links proteins, while the othere remains free to react with schiffs reagent Gluteraldehyde
preserves ultrastructure better than aldehydes Gluteraldehyde
Tissues fixed with gluteraldehyde can not be used in stains that use schiff's reagent Gluteraldehyde
very corossive and all contact with metallic objects must be avoided Mercuric chloride
is not used alone but is used in compound fixative bcuz it is a very powerful protein coagulant and enhances staining by leaving the tissue very receptive to dyes Mercuric chloride
Its presence in tissue inhibits freezing so frozen sections are difficult Mercuric chloride
fixation pigments cant be prevented when using mercury but it can be removed Mercuric chloride
bcuz of hazards associated with it mercury has been replaced by zinc Mercuric chloride
additive fixative Osmium tetroxide
not routinely used in histopathology Osmium tetroxide
primarily used to post fix specimens for electron microscopy to ensure preservation of lipids Osmium tetroxide
can fix a small amount of fat so that the fat will be maintained during paraffin processing Osmium tetroxide
only substance that is used as a fixative and a stain Picric acid
coagulant fixative Picric acid
strong enough acid to hydrolyze nucleic acid thereforeit can not be used to perform DNA and RNA stains Picric acid
not a fixative of lipids or carbs Picric acid
decalcify tissue with small calcium deposits such as breast Picric acid
constituent of fixative for glycogen Picric acid
wash out picric acid with 50% alcohol before processing Picric acid
rarely used alone for fixation Potassium dichromate
noncoagulant unless used in an acid solution, then it will act like chromic acid which is a coagulant Potassium dichromate
chromium will attach to some lipids rendering them inslouble but it does not preserve them Potassium dichromate
Preserves mitochondria but dissolves DNA Potassium dichromate
chromate pigments can form but can be reduced by treating with an acidic alcohol solution Potassium dichromate
have replaced mercury bcuz of its associated hazards Zinc Salts
preserves tissue antigenicity, making digestion procedures unncessary Zinc Salts
Superior nuclear detail and better paraffin infiltration than with formalin alone Zinc Salts
B-5 Compound fixative
Bouin Compound fixative
gendre Compound fixative
Hollande Compound fixative
Zenker and Helly Compound fixative
Orth Compound fixative
Zamboni Compound fixative
Zinc formalin Compound fixative
Mercuric chloride, sodium acetate, distilled water B-5
fixative for hemaptopoietic and lymphoreticular tissues bcuz it demonstrates beautiful nuclear detail B-5
remove mercury or pigments will occur B-5
Good stain for IHC and most special stains except silver stains B-5
picric acid(shrinking effect), 37-40% formaldehyde, glacial cetic acid(swelling effect) Bouin
lyses RBC and dissolves iron and small calcium deposits Bouin
excellent fixative form the trichorme stain Bouin
Preserves structures with soft and delicate textures Bouin
Formalin pigments can occur Bouin
95% alcohol saturated with picric acid, 37-40% formaldehyde, glacial acetic acid Gendre
alcoholic bouin solution excellent for preserving carbs expecially glycogen Gendre
Wash excess picric acid with 80% alcohol Gendre
Copper acetate, picric acid, 37-40% formaldehyde, distilled water Hollande
Modification of bouin whic stabilizes RBC membranes and the granules of eosinphils and endocrine cells Hollande
decalcify small bone specimens Hollande
more widely used for GI tract bx Hollande
Mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, sodium sulfate,distilled water Zenker helly stock solution
Zenker helly stock solution, Glacial acetic acid Zenker
Tissue must be treated for mercury pigment if not treated, chromate pigments may also form Zenker
Lyses erythrocytes Zenker
Good nuclear fixative Zenker
Good for performing mallory ptah Zenker
Unsat for silver stains Zenker
Zenker helly stock solution, 37-40% formaldehyde Helly
Tissue must be treated for mercury pigment if not treated chromate pigment may also form Helly
Formalin pigment may also occur Helly
preserves erythrocyte Helly
unsat for silver Helly
Potassium dichromate, sodium sulfate, distilled water, 37-40% formaldehyde Orth
Not a good general purpose fixative Orth
used to demonstrate chromaffin granules in the adrenal medulla Orth
Paraformaldehyde, picric acid, sodium hydroxide, phosphate buffer Zamboni buffered picric acid formaldehyde (PAF)
not widely used, is a good general fixative, allows for secondary fixation after osmium Zamboni buffered picric acid formaldehyde (PAF_
zinc chloride, dionized water, 99% isopropyl alcohol, 37-40% formaldehyde Alcoholic zinc formalin
Recommended as post fixative after NBF, antigenicity is enhanced and nuclear detail is improved Alcoholic zinc formalin
antigenicity is enhanced and nuclear detain is improved Alcoholic zinc formalin
Zinc sulfate, deionized water, 37-40% formaldehyde Unbuffered aqueous zinc formalin
formalin pigments can be formed Unbuffered aqueous zinc formalin
fix bx for 4-6 hours other tissues 6-8hours Unbuffered aqueous zinc formalin
absolute ethyl alcohol, chloroform, glacial acetic acid Carnoy
its ability to lyse erythrocytes is why it is used in cytology Carnoy
preserves glycogen Carnoy
picric acid, 37-40% formaldehyde Rossman
similar to gender Rossman
recommended for carbohydrates particularly glycogen Rossman
glycogen is preserved by either trapping it within precipitated proteins or by being precipitated directly Rossman
Chromic acid, osmic acid, acetic acid Flemming
excellent cytoplasmic and chromosomal fixative, especially when the acetic acid is omited Flemming
disadvantages, penetrates poorly, requires lenghthy washing and deteriorates rapidly Flemming
Created by: nperez