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AP ch 5 Integument

integument skin
skin is what percent of total body weight? 16%
2 components of integumentary system 1. cutaneous membrane (skin) 2. accessory structures (hair, nails, glands)
hypodermis deep to dermis, consists of adipose and areolar tissue (subcutaneous layer)
functions of skin & hypodermis protection of underlying tissue, excretion of salt/waste, maintain body temp, produce melanin, produce keratin, synthesize vit D3, storage of lipids, detection of touch/pressure
which layer of skin is avascular and receives nutrients through diffusion from other layers? epidermis is avascular and gets nutrients through diffusion from dermis.
melanin protects from? UV radiation (sunlight)
keratin protein that makes skin resistant to abrasion and water. Hair and nails are made of keratin.
thin skin four layers, covers entire body except palms and soles of feet.
thick skin five layers, covers soles of feet and palms of hands
stratum latin for "layer"
layers of epidermis from superficial to deepest stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale, basement membrane, dermis
stratum basale innermost layer of epidermis that attaches to basement membrane between dermis and epidermis
basal cells stem cells that divide and replace the more superficial keratinocytes in the superior layers of the epidermis
stratum basale is mostly made of what type of cells? basal cells (epidermal skin cells)
stratum spinosum the 2nd layer of the epidermis (from the bottom). daughter cells from the basal cells of the stratum basale are pushed up into the stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum third layer of epidermis (from the bottom). cells in this layer have stopped dividing and produce lots of keratin.
stratum lucidum the extra layer of epidermis that exists only in thick skin of palms and soles of feet. not present in thin skin.
stratum corneum exposed surface layer of all epidermis. cells are keratinized (dry and dead with keratin)
insensible perspiration water loss from interstitial fluids slowly moving to epidermal surface (stratum corneum) and evaporating. accounts for ~500 mL of fluid loss/day
sensible perspiration perspiration that you can feel, produced by sweat glands
epidermal reaction to a freshwater bath freshwater is hypotonic to skin so water moves into epidermal cells causing them to swell.
epidermal reaction to salt water saltwater is hypotonic so water shifts out of the body's cells causing dehydration
two pigments found in epidermis carotine, melanin
carotene orange/yellow pigment in epidermal cells that comes from orange vegetables in diet
melanin brown pigment produced by melanocytes located in the stratum basale (deepest epidermal layer). protects from UV radiation in sunlight.
hemoglobin pigment in red blood cells that binds and transports Oxygen
cholecalciferol a cholesterol based steroid that that the stratum basale (deepest epidermis) produces when exposed to sunlight (aka Vit D3). its needed to absorb calcium.
vitamin essential organic nutrient that must be obtained from diet b/c the body cant synthesize it.
rickets vit D3 (cholecalciferol) deficiency in children that leads to weak, flexible bones.
dermis lies between epidermis and hypodermis
epidermis top layer of integument
two layers of dermis 1. papillary (superficial, areolar tissue, capillaries, lymph, nerves) 2. reticular (deep, interwoven mesh of dense irregular connective tissue with collagen & elastic fibers)
dermatitis inflammation of the skin. primarily involves papillary layer of dermis. can be painful or itchy (poison ivy)
Dermal strength and elasticity comes from... collagen (strength) and elastic fibers (flexibility) found in the reticular (deep) layer
skin turgor flexibility and resilience provided by water content of the skin. Skin loses resilience with dehydration
cleavage lines fibers of the dermis run in parallel bundles that resist forces of normal movement. a cut parallel to these lines heals well, cut perpendicular scars badly
hypodermis not technically part of integument system. layer of areolar and adipose tissue deep to dermis that stabilizes skin but allows for independent mvmt from underlying tissues
subcutaneous injection injection into hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue)
root hair plexus nerve that innervates each hair follicle allowing you to feel movement of a single hair
arrector pili smooth muscle that contracts pulling on the hair follicle making the hair stand up.
hair root anchors hair to skin
hair shaft part of the hair that extends beyond the surface of the skin
avg healthy adult loses approx __ hairs per day? 100
sebaceous gland oil glands. discharge oily lipid secretion (sebum) into hair follicles
sebum the oily lipid secretion discharged by sebaceous glands
sebaceous follicle large sebaceous glands. not associated with hair follicles. discharge sebum directly onto skin surface.
sudoriferous gland sweat gland
two types of sudoriferous (sweat) glands 1. apocrine sweat gland- secretes into hair follicle (pubes, armpits, nipples) 2. merocrine sweat gland- secrete onto skin surface
ceruminous glands modified sweat glands in the ear canal whose secretions mix with sebacious gland secretions producing cerumen (ear wax)
cerumin ear wax
nail body visible portion of the finger/toe nail
nail bed epidermis protected by nail body
nail root where nail growth occurs. extends under skin, almost to finger bone.
eponychium cuticle of nail
fibrin fibrous protein that forms in blood creating a clot
granulation tissue blood clot, fibroblasts and capillary network during tissue healing
scar tissue inflexible, fibrous, non-cellular tissue that forms after an inury
keloid thick, raised area of scar tissue
Created by: ed8198



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