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Anatomical Termin.

Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Anatomical Terminology

Superiror/Inferior placement of a body structure along the long axis of the body. Divides the body into upper and lower
Anterior/posterior the most anterior structures or surfaces are those that are most forward (face, chest, abdomen) Posterior structures or surfaces are those toward the backside of the body
Medial/Lateral Toward the mid-line/away from the mid-line
Cephalad/Caudal Toward the head/Toward the tail. Used interchangeably with superior and inferior
Dorsal/Ventral Backside/Belly side. Used interchangeably with anterior and posterior.
Proximal/Distal Nearer the trunk or attachment end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment. Used primarily to locate various areas of the body limbs.
Superficial/Deep Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surface or more internal. Used to locate body organs in terms of their relative closeness to the body surface
Anatomical Position body is erect with feet together and palms facing forward with the thumbs pointing away from the body
Direction "right and left" refer to those sides of the person or cadaver being viewed
Axial (regional term) makes up the main axis of the body. Consists of the head, neck and trunk
Appendicular consists of the appendages or limbs
Sagittal plane runs longitudinally. Divides the body or organ into right and left portions
Midsagittal plane (median plane) - exactly mid-line and the parts are symmetrical or equal
parasagittal plane all other sagittal planes
frontal plane runs longitudinally, but the body or organs are divided into anterior and posterior
transverse plane runs horizontally across and at a right angle to the long axis of the body or organ and divides it into superior and inferior parts
Dorsal Body Cavity located nearer to the dorsal or posterior surface of the body. Subdivided into cranial and vertebral or spinal. They are continuous with one another. They house vital and very fragile organs - brain and spinal cord
Ventral Body Cavity More anterior and larger. Two major subdivisions: thoratic and abdominopelvic
Thoratic Cavity Surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest. Subdivided into Lateral Pleural cavities (each containing a lung) and Medial Mediastinum (contains the heart and remaining thoracic organs - esophagus, trachea, etc.)
Abdominopelvic cavity Divided into the abdominal cavity which contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs and the pelvic cavity which contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum
Serous Membranes membranes that cover the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs. Named for the cavity and organs with which they are associated.
Parietal serosa folds on itself to form the visceral serosa("parie" means wall)
visceral serosa covers the organs in the cavity ("viscus" means an organ in a body cavity)
Serous fluid a thin lubricating fluid that allows the organs to slide easily across the cavity walls and one another without friction
Parietal Pericardum the serous membrane that lines the pericardial (heart) cavity
visceral pericardum covers the heart
parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall in the pleural cavity
visceral pleura covers the lungs
Pleurisy inflammation of serous membranes, accompanied by a deficit of lubricating fluid which results in excruciating pain as organs stick together.
Quadrants Right upper, right lower, left upper, right lower
Created by: 1448082520