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Definitions - Ch. 1

Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Definintions

Anatomy (Greek "to cut apart") - The study of the form, or structure of body parts and of how these parts relate to one another. Static image.
Physiology The study of the functioning of the body;s structural machinery - how the parts of the body work and carry out their life sustaining activities. Dynamic process.
Subdivisions of Anatomy 1: Gross 2: Microscopic 3: Embryology 4: Pathology 5: Molecular biology
Gross Anatomy Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
Regional anatomy all structures in one part of the body are studied at the same time
Systemic anatomy various systems of the body are studied
Microscopic anatomy examination of body tissues using a microscope
Cytology study of the cells of the body
Histology study of the tissues of the body
Embryology developmental changes occurring before birth
Pathology disease related changes
Molecular biology sub-cellular level
"Complementarity of structure and function" Concept: function always reflects structure. What a structure can do depends on its specific form
Hierarchy of Structural Organization Concept: the human body incorporates many levels of structural complexity
Levels of Hierarchy 1: Atoms 2: Molecules 3: Organelles 4: Cells 5: Tissues 6: Organ 7: Organ System 8: Organism
Homeostasis Ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite a changing external environment.
negative feedback mechanisms that aids in the prevention of sudden severe changes within the body (blood glucose regulation)(most homeostatic control mechanisms)
positive feedback mechanisms that usually control infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments. (coagulation labor contractions - oxytocin)
Receptor an organ that monitors the environment, sends information or input to the control center (afferent pathway)
Effector an organ that provides the means by which the control center can cause a response to a stimulus (efferent pathway)
Control Center determines the set point, analyzes input and determines the appropriate response.
Created by: 1448082520