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Anatomy Basic Terms

Chapter 1 and 4

QuestionAnswer
Galen dissected apes
Hippocrates brain is higher level/ not heart, Hippocrates soup - chicken noodle soup
Avicenna diagnosed diabetes
Andreas Vesalius taught anatomy by dissections
Ambroise Pare amputations, phantom pain
William Harvey blood circulation
Anton van Leeuwenhoek microscope
Malpighi first to observe capillaries with a microscope
Galen's textbook was based on research of? apes
the physicians Oath was created by Hippocrates
what did velsalius discover no holes in our heart
anatomy study of body structure
physiology science of body functions
surface anatomy study of form and markings of the body surface
gross anatomy study of anatomical structures visible to the unaided eye
systemic anatomy Study all of the blood vessels, or all of the muscles, or all of the bones at once
regional anatomy All anatomical structures of a specific region
developmental anatomy study of the fertilized egg developing into its adult form
histology study of tissues
cytology study of individual cellular structures
pathology study of anatomical changes due to disease
autopsy postmortem (after death) examination of the body and internal organs
organism consists of a collection of organ systems
life processes metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproduction
homeostasis remaining stable or remaining the same
metabolism sum of all the catabolic and anabolic chemical processes that occur in the body
catabolic breaking down
anabolic building up
responsiveness body’s ability to detect and respond to changes which might represent an opportunity… or a threat!
differentiation development of a cell from an unspecialized to specialized state
reproduction formation of new cells (growth, repair, or replacement) or the production of a new individual
body fluids dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals inside or outside of the cell
receptor send nerve impulses or chemical signals
control center receives the input and provides nerve impulses or chemical signals
effector brings about a change or response that alters the controlled condition
negative feedback system Reverses a change in a controlled condition
positive feedback system Strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions
diagnosis of disease is done by assessing signs and symptoms, medical history, physical examination
anatomical position subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level, the eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floordirected forward, and the arms at their sides, palms forward
superior toward head
inferior away from head
anterior/ventral toward the front
posterior/dorsal toward the back
medial toward the midline
lateral away from midline
intermediate between medial and lateral
proximal nearest to the origin
distal farther from origin
ipsilateral same side of body
contralateral opposite side of the body
superficial towards the surface
deep towards the core of the body
visceral covering over an organ
parietal covering against a cavity wall
cranial skull
cervical neck
cubital elbow
carpal wrist
patellar front of knee
orbital eye
thoracic chest
inguinal groin
metacarpal hand/palm
plantar sole of foot
buccal cheek
axillary armpit
femoral thigh
gluteal buttock
tarsal ankle
digital/ phalangeal toes/ fingers
sagittal plane midline, divide body into right and left
transverse/ horizontal/ cross-sectional plane divide body into superior and inferior
frontal/ coronal plane divide body/organ into anterior and posterior
oblique plane pass through the body/ organ at an angle
thoracic cavity pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, mediastinal cavity formed by the sternum, ribs, and the thoracic portion of the bony vertebral column.
meninges Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and vertebral canal
Abdominopelvic Quadrants & Regions right hypochondriac region/epigastric region/left hypochondriac region right lumbar region/umbilical region/left lumbar region right inguinal region/hypogastric region/ left inguinal region
tissues group of cells with a common embryonic origin that function together to carry out specialized activities
histology study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues – it is a branch of pathology
intracellular junctions connect adjacent cells mechanically at the cell membranes or through cytoskeletal elements within and between cells
tight junctions found where a leakproof seal is needed between cells
adherens junctions make an adhesion belt that keeps tissues from separating as they stretch and contract
desmosomes spot welds
hemidesmosomes half welds that join cells to the basement membrane
gap junctions are pores (connexons) that allow small substances like ions to pass between cells
epithelial tissues cover body surfaces and form glands and line hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts
connective tissues protect, support, and bind organs
muscular tissues generate the physical force needed to make body structures move. They also generate heat used by the body
nervous tissues detect changes in the body and respond by generating nerve impulses
simple squamous epithelium composed of a single layer of flat cells found
simple cuboidal epithelium single layer of cube shaped cells
simple columnar epithelium forms a single layer of column-like cells, ± cilia, ± microvilli, ± goblet cells
pseudostratified columnar epithelium appears to have layers, due to nuclei which are at various depths. In reality, all cells are attached to the basement membrane in a single layer, but some do not extend to the apical surface
stratified squamous epithelium has an apical surface that is made up of squamous (flat) cells
stratified cuboidal epithelium has an apical surface made up of two or more layers of cube-shaped cells
transitional epithelium change shape depending on the state of stretch in the tissue bladder
endothelium specialized simple squamous epithelium that lines the entire circulatory system from the heart to the smallest capillary
mesothelium found in serous membranes such as the pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum
epithelial membranes epithelium + connective tissue
Created by: faganme