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AP Bone Ch 6

Excelsior AP ch 6 bone tissue and structure

skeletal system includes... bone, cartilage, ligaments
Five functions of the skeletal system 1. structural support 2. storage of lipids and minerals 3. blood cell production 4. protection of vital organs 5. leverage with the force of muscles
sutural bone shape small, flat, irregularly shaped bones between the flat bones in the skull. resemble jigsaw puzzle pieces
irregular bones complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces. ie- vertebrae,pelvic bones, some skull bones
short bones small and boxy. ie- carpals in wrists and tarsals in ankles
flat bones have thin parallel surfaces. ie- sternum, ribs, scapulae
long bones long and slender. ie- femur, humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, etc
largest, heaviest bone in the body femur
sesamoid bones small, flat, shaped somewhat like a sesame seed. develop inside tendons and are mostly found at joints. ie- patella
process (bone marking) projection or bump on bone surface where tendons/ligaments attach
trochanter large rough projection where tendon/ligaments attach
tuberosity small rough projection where tendon/ligaments attach
spine (bone marking) pointed or narrow projection (process)
foramen round passageway in bone through which blood vessels and nerves pass
canal duct or channel
meatus passageway through bone
fissure elongated cleft or slit
sinus a chamber within bone, normally filled with air
diaphysis tubular shaft of long bone
epiphysis head, expanded area at either end of long bone
metaphysis neck, narrow connection between epiphysis and diaphysis (head and shaft)
medullary cavity (marrow cavity) central space inside some bones that contains the marrow
compact bone dense bone that contains parallel osteons
cancellous bone spongy bone as in the epiphysis (head) of a long bone
epiphysis (head) of long bone is made of ___ bone spongy (cancellous)
cortex (cortical bone) thin layer of compact bone that surrounds spongy bone
matrix of osseous tissue is made up of... crystallized calcium salts, protein (collagen) fibers and ground substance containing specialized cells
calcium phosphate makes up approx ___ of the weight of all bone in the body 2/3 of the weight
collagen fibers make up approx ___ of the weight of all bone in the body 1/3 of the weight
bone gets its hardness from ___ ___ calcium salts
bone gets its flexibility from ___ ___ collagen fibers
four types of bone cells 1. osterocytes 2. osteoblasts 3. osteoprogenitor cells 4. osteoclasts
osteocytes mature bone cells. largest population of bone cells.
lacunae pocket that encloses each osteocyte
lamellae concentric layers of bone matrix matrix in an osteon (bulls eye)
canaliculi narrow passageways between matrix of bone that connect osteocytes in lacunae to one another and to blood vessels
functions of osteocytes 1. maintain protein and mineral levels in matrix 2. repair damaged bone by converting to less specialized cells
osteoblasts produce new bone matrix (osteogenesis/ossification)[blast and build both start with B]
osteogenesis/ossification production of new bone matrix (by osteoblasts)
osteoid new, incomplete bone matrix that doesn't yet have calcium deposits.
osteoprogenitor cells (ancestor) stem cells whose daughter cells differentiate into osteoblasts
osteoclasts dissolve and recycle bone matrix (osteolysis)
osteolysis erosion of bone matrix
osteon the functional unit of mature compact bone. made up of concentric layers of lamellae, central canal, perferorating canals and collagen fibers
central canal run parallel to bone surface. contain vessels that supply the osteon
perforating canals run perpendicular to bone surface, supply deeper bone tissue and medullary cavity
which type of bone has a structure arranged in osteons? compact bone
spongy bone structure matrix is an open network of fibers called trabeculae. spongy bone is located where bones are not heavily stressed or where stress is applied from many directions
trabeculae fibers that form the interwoven network of spongy bone
network of trabeculae in spongy bone supports and protects ___ ___ bone marrow
two types of bone marrow 1. red bone marrow- produces blood cells 2. yellow bone marrow- adipose tissue
red bone marrow located in the epiphysis (head) of long bones and in large bones like sternum, ilium, etc. Surrounded by spongy bone. produces blood cells.
yellow bone marrow adipose tissue that serves as an energy reserve.
body weight compresses the ___ side of femur while the ___ portion resists stretching under tension medial portion is compressed. Lateral portion resists stretching
periosteum the two layer fibrous membrane that wraps the outside of bone
two layers of periosteum 1. fibrous outer layer 2. cellular inner layer
endosteum incomplete cellular layer that lines the medullary cavity and trabeculae of spongy bone. made up of layer of osteoprogenitor (stem) cells and exposed matrix.
calcification deposition of calcium salts during ossification
ossification/osteogenesis bone formation
two types of ossification 1. endochondral 2. intramembranous
endochondral ossification in a developing fetus, the skeleton is initially made of hyaline cartilage. it is gradually replaced by bone during development.
intramembranous ossification bone develops from mesenchyme. usually occurs in dermis (creating dermal bones). responsible for growth of flat bones in skull, clavicles, mandible
epiphyseal cartilage cartilage that separates the epiphysis and diaphysis of a bone
appositional bone growth cells of inner layer of periosteum differentiate into osteoblasts and increase bone width by adding superficial layers of circumferential lamellae to bone.
ossification center location where ossification (bone formation) begins in tissue
spicules small struts of bone that grow outward from ossification center
three major sets of blood supplies to bone 1. nutrient artery/vein- supplies diaphysis 2. meathyseal vessels- supply inner surface of epiphyseal cartilage where growth occurs 3. perostial vessels- originate at periosteum and supply superficial osteons of diaphysis
nutrient foramina the opening in the diaphysis of a bone where the nutrient artery/vein enters the bone
remodeling continuous recycling and renewal of the organic and mineral components of the bone matrix by oseoclasts and osteoblasts
bone has a high turnover rate with approx __ of skeleton being replaced each year 1/5
when a bone is stressed, mineral crystals generate tiny ___ ___ which draws osteoblasts to the site to strengthen the bone. electrical fields
as muscle strength increases bumps and ridges where muscles attach... increase in size
bone that is not subjected to stress ___ deteriorates
calcitrol hormone required for calcium absorption in GI tract. synthesized in kidneys from cholecalciferol (vit D3)
cholecalciferol vitamin D3- used by the kidneys to synthesize calcitrol which is required for absorption of calcium in GI tract
Vitamin C required for many enzymatic reactions including collagen synthesis
vitamin A stimulates building of bone by stimulating osteoblasts
Vitamin K and B12 required for protein synthesis in normal bone
growth hormone produced by pituitary gland, stimulates bone growth
thyroxine produced by thyroid gland, stimulates bone growth
sex hormones (androgen and estrogen) both stimulate bone growth ultimately causing the closure of the epiphyseal cartilage. estrogen causes faster growth causing the cartilage to close in women before androgen does in men. thus, women usually shorter than men.
calcitonin decreases calcium content in body fluids. produced by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity, promotes calcium loss by kidneys.
parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases calcium concentration in body fluids by stimulating osteoclast activity, increases Ca++ absorption in GI tract, decreases Ca++ excretion in kidneys
calcitonin effect on calcium concentration in plasma decreases calcium levels in plasma. promotes bone growth.
parathyroid hormone effect on calcium levels in plasma increases calcium levels in plasma. promotes bone breakdown.
most abundant mineral in the human body calcium
if calcium level in body fluids gets too high neurons and muscle cells become unresponsive
if body fluid calcium level drops too low neurons become excitable and convulsions occur
a 50% decrease in plasma calcium concentration can cause death
Created by: ed8198