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GI development

What is the developing stomach attached to? It is attached to the body walls by the dorsal and ventral mesenteries.
Which wall of the stomach grows faster? The dorsal wall of the stomach growns faster than the ventral wall.
What does the differential growth cause? It causes the foramtion of the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach
How does the stomach rotate during the 7th week? It roates 90 degrees clockwise about a longitudinal axis
What does the rotation of the stomach cause? It causes a space behind the stomach called the lesser sac or omental bursa
Which side does the greater curvature face? The lesser curvature? It faces the left It faces the right
What pulls the stomach upward? When the stomach and duodenum rotate about a ventrodorsal axis.
What is the greater omentum? It is when the dorsal mesentery has thinned and now hangs from the greater curvature
What does the ventral mesentery eventually attach to? It attaches to the developing liver and has formed the lesser omentum
Where is the lesser sac (omental bursa) located? It is located posterior to the stomach
Where is the greater sac located? It is located anterior to the stomach
What is the epiploic foramen? Near the hilum of the liver, this is where the lesser sac communicates with the greater sac
What forms from 4 layers of peritoneum? During the fetal period the anterior and posterior folds of the greater omentum fuse to form one thick sheet formed from 4 layers of peritoneum
What supplies blood to the foregut? Midgut? Hindgut? forgeut is supplied by branches of celiac trunk midgut is supplied by superior mesentric artery hindgut is supplied by inferior mesentric artery
What does the midgut become? The midgut becomes the small intestine and proximal large intestine
What does the midgut form when it elongates? It forms the primary intestinal loop
What does the cranial limb of primary limb form? Most of small intestine (distal half of duodenum, entire jejunum and most of ileum)
What does the caudal limb form? Distal ileum, proximal (right) 2/3 of transverse colon
What is the apex of the primary intestinal loop connect to? Connected to yolk sac by vitelline duct (lies within the umbilical cord)
What happens because the abdominal organs grow faster than the abdominal cavity? Forces primary intestine loop to herniate through the umbilicus into umbilical cord.
How does the primary intestine loop rotate as herniation continues? It rotates 90 degrees counter clockwise about the superior mesenteric artery
Where is the cranial and caudal lim located? Cranial is on the right, and caudal is on the left
BY 8 to 10 weeks what does the caudal limb develop? It develops an enlarged cecal bud which will form the cecum
What happens after the abdominal cavity grow sufficiently? The primary intestine loop retracts back into the abdomen
As the primary intestine loop retracts how does it rotate It rotates 180 degrees counterclockwishe about the superior mesentric artery
Why does the cranial limb retract before the caudal limb? The cranial limb retracts firts because the cecal bud acts as a knot on rope and prevents the caudal limb from moving first
Which way does the cranial limb go as it retracts? It goes to the left and froms most of the small intestine. The caudal limb goes to the right of the cranial
Where is the transverse colon located? The transverse colon is in front of the duodenum
Where are the cecum and ascending colon intially? After? Initially they are under the liver. The cecum descends and goes to the lower right. The ascending colon elongates
During the fetal period what happens to the vitelline duct? It regresses and disappears.
What happens after the final position of the intestines is attained? The ascending and descending colon mesenteries fuse to the posterior abdominal wall
What is volvulus? It is a malrotation where the intestine twist on itself
What is omphalocele? It is the failure of the intestine to return to the abdominal cavity. Usually associated with neural tube defects, cardia malformation and chromosomal abnormalities
What is Meckel's? It is failure of the vitelline duct to degenerate. It could have apendix like off of the ileum. It could have a fibrous cord that attaches to umbilicus. It could be patent where there is potential for fecal matter to leave the ileum through umbilicus
Nonrotation? When the primary intestine loop does not rotate 180 degrees as it returns to the abdomen. The large intestine is on left and small on right
Reversed rotation? When gut rotates 90 degrees counterclockwise instead of clockwise. The duodenum is anterior instead of posterior in relation to transverse colon
What is the cloacal membrane? It is going to be apart of the hindgut
What does the vitelline duct do? It connects the yolk sac to the gastrointestinal system



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