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AP Body Tissues Ch 4

3 epithelial cell shapes squamous (flat), cuboidal (box-like), columnar (tall, slender)
squamous epithelial cells thin flat cells
cuboidal epithelial cells box-like cells
columnar epithelial cells tall, slender rectangles
simple epithelium one layer of cells covering the basement membrane. common in areas where absorption and diffusion take place
stratified epithelium several layers of cells. tough, resist chemical and mechanical stress (skin, mouth, etc)
simple squamous epithelium single layer of thin flat cells
stratified squamous epithelium thin flat cells that form multiple layers to provide protection from chemical and mechanical stress
keratin protein in skin that makes cells water resistant and prevents them from drying out
simple cuboidal epithelium single layer of box like cells
stratified cuboidal epithelium multiple layers of box like cells. very rare, found in ducts of sweat glands and mammary glands
transitional epithelia tolerates stretching and recoil without damage. found in urinary bladder.
simple columnar epithelia single layer of tall, slender rectangular cells, found in small intestine
stratified columnar epithelia is actually composed of bottom layers of cuboidal cells with a layer of columnar cells at the surface. compose epiglottis
gland collection of epithelial cells that produce secretions
endocrine gland releases secretions into interstitial fluid
hormones endocrine secretions released into interstitial fluid and then absorbed into bloodstream. regulate activities of various organs
exocrine gland secrete products into ducts to be discharged on the epithelial surface
three types of exocrine glands 1. serous gland 2. mucous gland 3. mixed exocrine gland
serous gland type of exocrine gland that secretes a watery solution that contains enzymes
mucous gland exocrine gland that releases mucin that mixed with fluid to produce mucous
mixed exocrine gland secretes more than one type of secretion
examples of connective tissue bone, fat, blood, etc
three components of connective tissue 1. has specialized cells 2. ground substance (fluid) 3. extracellular protein fibers
the two components of connective tissue that make up the matrix ground substance (fluid) and extracellular protein fibers
connective tissue matrix the portion of the tissue that surrounds the cells (fluid and protein fibers that surround cells)
connective tissue proper contains many types of cells in a thick syrupy ground substance (ie adipose)
fluid connective tissue contains cells in a watery matrix (ie blood, lymph)
supporting connective tissue matrix contains densely packed protein fibers to provide support to body structures (ie cartilage, bone)
fibroblast a cell in connective tissue proper that contributes to the formation of connective tissue fibers. especially collagen fibers.
adipocyte fat cell. in addition to organelles they also contain a large lipid droplet
fibrocyte differentiate from fibroblasts. they maintain connective tissue fibers.
mesenchymal cell stem cells in connective tissue that replace damaged cells via rapid cell division
macrophage engulf damaged cells or pathogens. release cytokines that stimulate immune cells
cytokines chemical messengers sent between cells
lymphocytes cells of the lymph system that respond to tissue damage
microphages phagocytic white blood cells that participate in immune response (neutrophils and eosinophils)
melanocytes produce melanin, the brown pigment in skin
collagen fibers long straight strands of proteins wound together like rope. they are flexible but very strong when pulled along long axis.
tendons connect muscle to bone
ligaments connect bone to bone
reticular fibers form branching, interwoven network that is tough and resists forces from many directions. makes up stroma of organs.
stroma network of reticular connective tissue fibers that support functional tissue of an organ.
parenchyma the functional tissue of an organ
elastic fibers connective tissue fibers that contain the protein elastin. after they are stretched, they return to their original length.
elastic ligaments rare ligaments found only between vertebrae.
ground substance functions fills the space between cells of connective tissue and surrounds protein fibers
mesenchyme embryonic connective tissue with many stem cells from which all other types of connective tissue are formed
do adults have mesenchyme? no, but they do have scattered mesenchymal cells (stem cells) for tissue repair
functions of loose connective tissue fill spaces between organs, cushions and stabilized organs, "packing material in the body"
three types of loose connective tissue areolar tissue, adipose tissue, reticular tissue
areolar tissue loose connective tissue with viscous ground substance and loosely organized fibers. can stretch and distort without permanent damage. forms layer that separates skin from other structures and allows independent movement
adipose tissue similar to areolar tissue except contains more adipocytes. provides "packing" around organs and insulates from heat loss.
reticular tissue forms the stroma that supports the parenchyma (functional cells) of spleen, liver, etc.
stroma framework of connective tissue that supports parenchyma
parenchyma functional tissue of an organ
dense connective tissue made up of densely packed collagen fibers
two types of dense connective tissue 1-dense irregular connective tissue 2-dense regular connective tissue
dense regular connective tissue fibers are parallel and aligned with the forces placed on tissue. ex are tendons and ligaments
dense irregular connective tissue fibers form an interwoven mesh with no consistent pattern. ex capsules of liver, spleen, kidneys, etc
two types of fluid connective tissue blood, lymph
three classes of extracellular fluid blood, lymph, interstitial fluid
plasma watery matrix around blood cells (the liquid portion of blood)
formed elements the blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma
three types of formed elements white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets
movement of extracellular fluid through the body 1. arteries carry blood away from the heart 2. BP forces some fluid and small solutes across capillary walls making it interstitial fluid (around cells) 3. interstitial fluid enters lymphatic vessels becoming lymph 4. lymph is returned to the heart
chondroitin sulfate the firm gel matrix that makes up cartilage
chondrocyte cartilage cell, the only cells in cartilage matrix
lacunae small chambers that surround chondrocytes in cartilage and osteocytes in bone
perichondrium two layer fibrous structure that surrounds cartilage separating it from other tissues
two types of cartilage growth 1. interstitial growth 2. appositional growth
interstitial cartilage growth chondrocytes in matrix divide, enlarges cartilage from within
appositional cartilage growth new layers are added to cartilage surface when the cells in the inner layer of the perichondrium divide
most common type of cartilage hyaline cartilage
hyaline cartilage made of densely packed collagen fibers. tough but flexible. reduces friction between bones. found in synovial joints and between ribs and sternum
elastic cartilage contains elastic fibers. resilient and flexible. found in penna of ear, epiglottis, larynx
fibrocartilage matrix made of dense interwoven collagen fibers. tough but durable. found between vertebrae, pelvic bones and joints.
complex joints contain which two types of cartilage? hyaline and fibrocartilage
2/3 of the body's bone composition are made up of ___ ___ calcium salts
calcium salts are hard and ___ brittle
___ ___ give bones their hardness while ___ ___ give bone its flexibility calcium salts, collagen fibers
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteocytes are surrounded by pockets called ___ lacunae
canaliculi passageways in bone matrix in which extensions of cytoplasm allow communication between osteocytes, other osteocytes and blood vessels
periosteum two layered sheath that covers the outer surface of bone
mucous membranes line chambers/passageways that are open to the outside world. must be kept moist with mucous.
serous membranes line ventral body cavities. not open to exterior.
parietal portion of a serous membrane lines the inner surface of the cavity
visceral portion of a serous membrane lines the organs inside ventral body cavities
transudate the fluid on the surface of serous membranes that lubricates to reduce friction from between the visceral and parietal portions of serous membranes during movement and function of the organs.
cutaneous membrane (skin) covers body surface. thick, waterproof and dry. stratified squamous epithelium on top of areolar tissue reinforced by dense irregular connective tissue
synovial membrane produces synovial fluid that fills joint cavity to lubricate bone ends. Is made of a matrix of collagen fibers.
connective tissue function creates body's framework by binding skin, muscle, bone and organs together.
three layers of fascia 1. superficial fascia 2. deep fascia 3. subserous fascia
superficial fascia areolar and adipose tissue that separates the skin from underlying structures and allows skin to move independently
deep fascia dense irregular connective tissue that is bound to and stabilizes organ capsules, tendons, ligaments, etc
subserous fascia deepest layer of fascia. Areolar tissue that separates deep fascia from serous membranes of body cavities.
three types of muscle tissue 1. skeletal muscle 2. cardiac muscle 3. smooth muscle
skeletal muscle function gross body movement
function of cardiac muscle cardiac contraction to circulate blood.
function of smooth muscle provide elasticity, contractility and support in walls of visceral organs and other locations.
myosattelite cells stem cells present in skeletal muscle that produce new muscle fibers
striated voluntary muscle describes skeletal muscle
cardiocyte cardiac muscle cell
intercalated disc specialized regions where cardiocytes connect to one another. Ion mvmt through gap junctions synchronize cardiac contraction.
pacemaker cells special cardiac cells that establish a regular rate of contraction.
striated involuntary muscle cardiac muscle
smooth muscle is found in... walls of blood vessels, hollow organs, etc
types of muscle cells that are striated skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle. smooth muscle is not striated.
nonstriated involuntary muscle smooth muscle
nervous tissue specialized for conduction of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another.
98% of nervous tissue is in the ___ and ___ ___ brain and spinal cord
two types of neural tissue 1. neurons 2. neuroglia
neurons communicate with each other via electrical impulses. limited ability to repair themselves.
neuroglia support and repair neural tissue and supply neurons with nutrients.
longest cells in body neurons can be up to 1m long; muscle cells can only be up to 1 ft long.
neuron cell body portion of neuron that contains the nucleus
dendrite small projections off of the cell body of a neuron that RECEIVE info from other neurons
axon single, long projection of neuron that sends info to the dendrite of the next neuron
inflammation reaction of tissue to injury or infection. damages cells release prostaglandins, proteins and potassium which changes the composition of interstitial fluid.
necrosis tissue destruction beginning several hours after cell injury or death due to autolysis.
autolysis lysosomes of damaged cells release enzymes that destroy themselves releasing their enzymes and destroying the cells. after lysis enzymes leak out and destroy surrounding cells as well.
pus accumulation of fluid, dead cells and cell components
abscess accumulation of pus in enclosed tissue space.
fibrosis permanent replacement of normal tissue by fibrous tissue
Created by: ed8198



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