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Teas V preparation 1

study guide to the Teas V test for Science of the Human Body

Tissue Type: -provide covering or tissue secretions -exists in sheets and does not have its own blood supply Epithelial Tissue
How is epithelial tissue classified? number of cell layers and cell shape Two Types: --Simple Epithium (one layer; found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur) --Straitified Epithelium (more than one layer; serves as protection)
Tissue Type: -serves to connect different structures of the body Connective Tissue
List the types of connective tissue. bone, cartilage, adipose (fat), and blood vessels
Tissue Type: -produce movement -supports voluntary movement Muscle Tissue
What are three types of muscle tissue? -Smooth (involuntary; found in the walls of hollow organs) -Cardiac (involntary; found only in the heart) -Skeletal
Tissue Type: -provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves Nervous Tissue
Circulatory System -consist of the heart, blood vessels, and blood -it supports the circulation and distribution of various substances (oxygem, hormones, nutrints) throughout the body
Hormones released from the ( ) system influence blood pressure Endocrine
The ( ) system helps regulate blood volume and pressure by adjusting urine volume Urinary
The ( ) system controlslood pressure, heart rate, and distribution of blood to various parts of the body Nervous
( ) helps preserve vascular health Estrogen
The ( ) system allows heat to escape by dilating superficial blood vessels Integumentary
Blood cells are formed in the marrow of the bones in the ( ) system Skeletal
Digestive System -consist of all organs from the mouth to the anus invovled in the ingestion and breakdown or processing of food -organs include: esophagus, stomach, small/large intestine, restum, and anus
Where does absorption occur? small intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum)
What organ removes water and waste? Colon
Two additional organs included in the digestive system? -Liver (produces bile tha helps break down fats) -Pancreas (delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion)
Increased ( ) activity increases the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Skeletal Muscle
Endocrine System -controls body functions -glands secrete hormones that travel through the body.
What are the glands in the endocrine system that regulate processes such as growth and metabolism pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, throid, thymus, and adrenal
The ( ) system provides a means of transportation for some hormones Lymphatic
The ( ) system provides protection for some endocrine glands Muscular
The ( ) system controls the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland Nervous
Integumentary System -consists of skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails -protects internal tissues from injury -waterproofs the body -helps regulate temperature -serves as a barrier to pathogens
The ( ) and ( ) systems provide oxygen and nutrients to the skin to help it remain healthy Respiratory and Digestive
Oxygen and nutrients for the skin travel through blood vessels in the ( ) system Cardiovascular
The ( ) system picks up excess fluid from the skin to avoid swelling Lymphatic
The ( ) system provides shape and support Skeletal
Hormones from the ( ) system regulate hair growth and hydration Endocrine
The skin serves to protect internal organs, including those in the ( ) system Reproductive
The ( ) system generates heat that is expelled through the skin as sweat Muscular
The ( ) system activates vitamin D Urinary
The ( ) system regulates the productio of sweat, interprets stimuli, and adjusts the diameter of blood vessels in the skin Nervous
Lymphatic System -consists of lymph nodes, lymph vessels, the spleen, thymus, and the tonsils. -supports the immune system by housing and transporting whit blood cells to an from lymph nodes -also returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into th
The ( ) system helps with proper lymphatic functioning by helping to maintain proper water/acid-base/electrolyte balance of the blood Urinary
The ( ) helps control the immune response Brain
( ) secretions in both the reproductive and integumentary systems prevent bacterial growth Acidic
Muscular System -consists of skeletal muscles, tendons (muscles to bones), ligaments (bones together) -does not include the cardias and smooth muscles
The ( ) system releases hormones that influence muscular strength Endocrine
The ( ) system regulates and coordinates muscular activity Nervous
The ( ) system encourages larger muscle size in men Reproductive
The ( ) provide levers for muscular activity Bones
Nervous System -consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves -serves as the body's control system
The ( ) system releases hormones that regulate the activity of neurons Endocrine
The ( ) system helps dispose of metabolic wastes and maintains the correct electrolyte balance for proper nerve function Urinary
Reproductive System -main purpose is to produce offspring -consists of testes, penis, ovaries, vagina, and breasts
The ( ) system transports sex hormones Lymphatic
The ( ) system is involved in childbirth Muscular
The ( ) rate increases during pregnancy Respiratory
Respiratory System -keeps body cells supplied with oxygen and removes body carbon dioxide as it is released from cells -consist of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
The lungs house tiny air sacs called ( ) which is where oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out via small blood vessels called ( ) alveoli ; arterioles
The ( ) system aids in breathing by producing volume changes (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) Muscular
The ( ) system regulates breathing rate and depth Nervous
Skeletal System -provides support and protection for the body and its organs -supplies the framework that is used in conjunction with the muscles to create movement -consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints -severs as storage for minerals (calcium and phosp
The ( ) system releases hormones that regulate growth and release of calcium Endocrine
The ( ) system provides nutrients necessary for the mineralization of bones Digestive
The ( ) system activates vitamin D, which is necessary for calcium absorption into bone Urinary
The ( ) system helps place stress on the bones during exercise, which increases the deposit of calcium into the bones and joints Muscular
The ( ) system supplies oxygen and nutrients while removing wastes, such as lactic acid Cardiovascular
The ( ) system influences the shape of the skeletal form Reproductive
The ( ) system provides vitamin D necessary for absorbing calcium into bone Integumentary
Urinary System -helps maintain the water and electrolyte (Na, Cl, K) balance within the body -regulates the acid-base balance of the blood -removes all nitrogen containing wastes, by products of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids, from the body
Anatomical Position a standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward.
Superior above
Inferior below
Anterior toward the front
Posterior toward the back
Medial middle of the body
Lateral toward the outer sides of the body
Intermediate between medial and lateral
Proximal close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment
Distal away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment
Superficial toward the body surface
Deep below body surface
Sagittal section divide the body into right and left sides
Midsagittal section divide the body into equal right and left halves
Transverse section divide the body into upper and lower regions
Frontal section divide the body into front and back regions
Dorsal body cavity contains the cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Ventral body cavity -contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen -diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (above the diaphragm) -below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Functions of the Human Body adaption circulation elimination locomotion nutrition oxygenation regulation self-duplication
Adaption receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
Circulation transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissue via the cardiovascular system
Elimination remove metabolic wastes from the body via the renal system
Locomotion allow voluntary and involuntary movement of body via the musculoskeletal and neurological systems
Nutrition take in and breakdown nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system
Oxygenation take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the respiratory system
Regulation hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine system
Self-duplication production of offspring via the reproductive system
The 11 organ systems work together to carry out the functions necessary for life. These functions are: -maintaining boundaries -responding to environmental changes -moving about -ingesting and digesting -nutrients -reproducing -growing -removing waste -producing energy through metabolism
When all the needs of the body are met, and all of the organ systems are working properly, the body is in a stable state know as...... Homeostasis
Which system is the transportation highway for he entire body? Circulatory / Cardiovascular system -consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
An organ that contracts and pumps blood through out the body The Heart -rhythmic contractions of the heart enable blood to be transported throughout the body
What are the blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries? Arteries
What are the blood vessels that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart Veins
What serves as the location for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid, and nutrients with in the body Capillaries
What does the heart contain -4 chambers (right/left atrium and ventricles) -4 valves (tricuspid and pulmonary on the right and mitral and aortic on the left)
Flow of blood through the heart deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the -superior and inferior vena cava -right atrium -tricuspid valve -right ventricle -pulmonary valve -pulmonary artery -lungs -pulmonary veins -left atrium -mitral valve -left ventricle -aortic valv
Primary function of the lungs breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide
Flow of air through the lungs -air is inhaled through the nose into the trachea -passing into the the right/left bronchial tubes -air travels into the aveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur -oxygen is then transported by RBCs into the bloodstream
What is the diaphragms function in the respiratory system it is an abdominal muscle that contracts and pulls air into the lungs during inspiration
Inspiration the act of taking in oxygenated air
Expiration carbon dioxide is forced out of the body when the diaphragm relaxes
Nervous system consist of the... -Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) -Peripheral Nervous System (cranial and spinal nerves below the CNS)
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is divided into two parts -Autonomic Nervous System (controls automatic body functions -Sensory Somatic Nervous System (controls voluntary actions)
Autonomic Nervous System contains two types of nerves -sympathetic nerves (excited or scared) -parasympathetic nerves (eating or at rest)
Parts of a nerve cell -dendrites -neurons -axon -synapse
Dendrites receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli to the neurons for interpretation
Neurons are specialized cells that make up nervous system and transmit messages
Axon the part of the nerve cell that connects one neuron with another neuron
Synapse the fluid filled gap between neuron connections
3 main functions of the nervous system -sensory -motor -integrative all of these functions work together with other body systems to react to stimuli and maintain homeostasis
Sensory Functions -feel pain, heat, and other stimuli -face, fingers, and toes have the most sensory neurons -reflex response
Motor Functions carry electrical impulses from the CNS to the effectors (glands and muscles)
Integrative Functions uses sensory information to make decisions and to develop thoughts
Immune System tissue, cells, organs that fight off illness and disease which are composed of both innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) defenses that are designed to protect the body from pathogens and other foreign invaders.
Innate immune defenses include -first line of defense (skin, mucous membranes, and digestive enzymes) -second line of defense (fever, inflammation, phagocytes, natural killer cells, interferons, chemotaxis, and release cytokines)
4 signs of inflammation redness heat swelling pain
Natural Killer Cells -produce perforins (pore forming proteins) that target cancer and virus cells -perforins cause cells to lyse (rupture)
Interferons -the body's response to a vial infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7-10 days -activate macrophages and NK cells
Chemotaxis -the method by which the leukocytes (WBC) respond to damaged body tissues. -accomplished through cytokines
Cytokines chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
Diapedesis is the process of white blood cells squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines followed by cellular adhesion molecules guiding the WBCs to the site of damage or infection.
Adaptive Immune defense includes the.... third line of defense (antibody-mediated and cell-mediated response)
Process of the antibody mediated immune response -antibodies are produced that are specific to the invading antigen -the antigen binds the B cells (lymphocyte) followed by binding with T-helper cells -this activates the B cells to produce antibodies
2 types of antibody mediated response -active immunity (person receives a vaccine) -passive immunity (person does not produce their own antibodies, but receives them from another source, mother to baby)
Process of the cell mediated immune response -macrophages capture the nonself cells -a T-helper cell binds to it and secretes a cytokine that signals the cytotoxic T cell -the cytotoxic T cell responds through chemotaxis and actively destroys the nonself cell
Created by: sevans89
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