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AP cellular lvl ch3

cellular level of body organization

cytology the study of cell structure and function
sex cells sperm and oocytes (reproductive cells)
somatic cells all cells in the body except reproductive cells (sperm and oocytes)
cytoplasm cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
cytosol fluid portion of cytoplasm
cells come from division of preexisting cells
smallest units that perform physiological functions cells
each cell maintains its own state of ___ homeostasis
plasma membrane physical barrier separating cytoplasm from the extracellular environment
functions of plasma membrane barrier btwn inside/outside of cell, control entry/exit from cell, elimination, receptors monitor environment, structural support
phospholipid bilayer plasma membrane is made of two layers of lipids
hydrophilic layer of plasma membrane the outer surface of the membrane
hydrophobic layer of plasma membrane the internal layer of the membrane
contains more K+, cytosol or extracellular fluid? cytosol contains more potassium
contains more Na+, cytosol or extracellular fluid? extracellular fluid contains more sodium
two classes of membrane proteins 1- integral proteins 2- peripheral proteins
integral membrane proteins are a permanent part of membrane structure
peripheral membrane proteins bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane and can be removed without causing damage to the membrane
anchoring proteins stabilize the cell by attaching it to other structures outside of cell and to the cytoskeleton inside the cell
recognition proteins (identifiers) allow the immune system cells to recognize cells as "self" or "foreign
enzymes catalyze chemical reactions inside or outside of the cells
receptor proteins sensitive to ligands which trigger changes in cellular activity
ligands extracellular molecules that bind to receptors which then trigger changes is cellular activity
carrier proteins bind solutes and transport them across cell membranes
channels proteins with a central pore that forms a passageway across the membrane to permit movement of water and solutes
glycocalyx carbohydrates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) that extend beyond surface of the plasma membrane forming a viscous layer for lubrication, protection, act as receptors and aid in recognition by immune cells.
cytosol fluid portion of cytoplasm
which contains more suspended proteins cytosol or extracellular fluid? cytosol contains more suspended proteins
cytosol contains reserve stores of ___ ___ and ___ carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids
inclusions masses of insoluble materials in cytosol (usually stored nutrients)
organelles internal structures that perform specific tasks to maintain the health and life of the cell (the cells organs)
cytoskeleton internal protein framework that provides cytoplasm with strength and structure. Made up of microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules.
microfilaments smallest element of cytoskeleton. composed of the protein actin
functions of microfilaments -anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins on plasma membrane -produce movement or change shape of cell
intermediate filaments filaments of cytoskeleton that are larger than microfilaments but smaller than thick filaments. Made of various proteins. They are the most durable part of the cytoskeleton.
functions of intermediate filaments -stabilize organelles -maintain cell shape (along with microfilaments) -attach to plasma membrane to stabilize cell position
microtubules largest component of cytoskeleton. made up of protein called tubulin. they start at the centrosome and extend out into cytoplasm.
functions of microtubules strength, change shape of cell, move vesicles and organelles in cell, spindle apparatus during cell division
thick filaments massive filament bundles composed of the protein myosin. They appear only in muscle cells and produce muscle contraction.
microvilli small finger-like projections on the surface of cells responsible for absorption (such as cells lining the digestive tract). They increase the surface area of the cell so it is exposed to more of the extracellular environment.
centrioles cylindrical structures composed of microtubules that are found in all cells capable of cell division. They are made of 9 microtubules grouped in triplets (9+0 array). During cell division they form the spindle apparatus.
centrosome the region of cytoplasm that surrounds the centrioles
cilia long, slender, hair-like extensions of the plasma membrane of some cells in respiratory and reproductive systems. They move fluid or secretions across the cell surface.
function of ribosomes rotein synthesis
the two subunits of ribosomes small ribosomal unit and large ribosomal units. The two must join together with mRNA for protein synthesis to occur
two types of ribosomes 1- free ribososmes 2- fixed ribosomes
free ribosomes scattered throughout cytoplasm. synthesize proteins that enter the cytosol for use inside the cell
fixed ribosomes attached to rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum). They make proteins that are modified and packaged by ER for secretion outside of the cell
function of proteosomes they remove proteins from cytoplasm that are damaged or abnormal (like those released from virus infected cells) and break them down to recycle the unable parts of the damaged protein
proteases enzymes found in proteosomes that digest abnormal proteins making them proteolytic
tertiary third stage
endoplasmic reticulum network of flat sacs, hollow tubes and chambers (cisternae) connected to the nuclear membrane that: -aid in protein synthesis -store materials -transport materials -absorb and neutralize drugs and toxins
two types of endoplasmic reticulum smooth ER- has smooth surface rough ER- has ribosomes along its outer surface
smooth ER function synthesize lipids and carbs for use in cell, synth steroids/hormones, synth glycogen in muscles/liver, adjust cytosol ionic contents, detox in liver/kidney
rough ER function proteins newly made by ribosomes on its surface are packaged and modified for export to next destination (most are packaged in transport vesicles for delivery to golgi apparatus
transport vesicle membranes formed around proteins modified by the rough ER that then transport the proteins to their next destination (usually the golgi apparatus)
golgi apparatus looks like a stack of flattened sacs (cisternae). located near the nucleus. prepares proteins that it receives from the rough ER for exocytosis (enzymes, hormones, etc). It also packages special enzymes in vesicles for use in cytoplasm
cisternae flattened sacs that contain fluid in the ER and golgi apparatus
lysosomes digestive vesicles produced by the golgi apparatus that provide an isolated environment for dangerous chemical reactions within the cell (ie- the breakdown of large organic molecules).
primary lysosomes contain inactive enzymes. once they fuse with the material to be digested their enzymes become activated and they become secondary lysosomes
secondary lysosomes lysosomes that have fused with material to be digested and now contain active digestive enzymes
functions of lysosomes -digest and recycle damaged organelles -destroy bacteria, organic compounds or liquids that enter the cell -after digestion of materials, the nutrients are released into cytosol and the unusable waste is eliminated through exocytosis
autolysis a cell is damaged and it's lysosomes disintegrate eleasing digestive enzymes into the cytoplasm. The enzymes rapidly destroy the cell's organelles, proteins and plasma membrane
proteins made in the ___ ribosomes are released into cytoplasm for use in the cell free ribosomes make proteins for use in the cell
proteins made in the ___ ribosomes are folded and packaged to moved to the ER. fixed ribosomes make proteins that then move into the ER and are eventually used outside of the cell
secretory vesicles vesicles made in the golgi apparatus that fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents outside of the cell (exocytosis)
membrane renewal vesicles vesicles made in the golgi apparatus that add new proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane
steps of protein synthesis 1-mRNA leaves nucleas/attach ribosome 2-ribsome makes protein from amino acids 3-proteins from free ribos move into cytosol, from fixed ribos move to ER 4-modified in ER tubes 5-transport vesicle forms around protein 6-moves to golgi apparatus
peroxisomes vesicles that are smaller than lysosomes and contain digestive enzymes for breakdown of fatty acids. They protect the cell from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which is a free radical byproduct of fatty acid digestion.
catalase the main enzyme responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide in peroxisomes. It is produced by free ribosomes and carried to peroxosomes by carrier proteins
membrane flow the repair, recycling and changes in composition that the plasma membrane goes through to adapt to environmental changes
mitochondria "powerhouse of the cell" responsible for energy (ATP) production via the breakdown of carbohydrates
cristae of mitochondria the many folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria that contains the fluid contents (matrix)
mitochondrial matrix the fluid inside the cristae of the mitochondria
most chemical reactions that release energy occur in the ___ mitochondria
most chemical reactions that use energy occur in the ___ cytoplasm
steps of mitochondrial energy production (aerobic respiration) 1-glycolysis in cytoplasm 2-mitochondria absorb pyruvate 3-CO2 removed from pyruvate in matrix 4-Krebs (citric acid) cycle 5-CO2 released 6-H+ from krebs oxidized (e- trans chain) 7-ATP produced
mitochondria absorb ___ and ___ and generate ___ and ___. absorb pyruvate and O2 and generate CO2 and ATP
Nucleus largest organelle. control center of cell. determines structure and function of the cell.
nuclear envelope double membrane that separates nucleus from cytosol
perinuclear space the space between the two layers of the nuclear envelope
what organelle is externally connected to the nuclear envelope? the rough ER
nuclear pores large proteins in nuclear envelope that allow chemical communication between nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleoplasm the fluid in the nucleus
nuclear matrix network of filaments in nucleoplasm that provide structure and support
nucleoli transient organelles inside nucleus that synthesize rRNA and produce the ribosomal subunits
nucleosome complex formed by double helix DNA strands wound around a core of histones
chromatin when cells are not dividing, nucleosomes are loosely coiled (a tangled mess)
chromosomes the form that nucleosomes take on when they coil tightly just before cell division
humans have how many pairs of chromosomes? 23
genetic code the chemical language the cell uses to code for functional products
the nitrogenous bases of complementary DNA strands are held together by ___ bonds hydrogen bonds
triplet code the identity of a single amino acid is stored in sequences of three nitrogenous bases
gene the functional unit of heredity. contains all the DNA triplets needed to produce specific proteins
gene activation before protein synthesis the hydrogen bonds between nucleotides are broken, the histones are removed and RNA polymerase binds to the promoter site on the DNA
transcription "to copy" -its the synthesis of RNA using DNA as a so that the info can be taken to the ribosomes by mRNA for protein synthesis
mRNA (messenger RNA) is made in the nucleus during transcription using DNA as a template. mRNA then takes the info for protein synthesis into the cytoplasm to bind ribosomes
RNA polymerase enzyme that creates RNA from DNA
coding strand one of the two strands of DNA. during transcription this is the strand that contains the genes for specific proteins
template strand one of the two strands of DNA. during transcription, this strand is complementary to the coding (functional) strand so when a strand of RNA complementary to the template strand is made, it is identical to the coding strand of DNA
codon three nucleotide bases on RNA that are complementary to a triplet of bases on the template DNA strand (which makes them identical to a triplet on the coding (functional strand)
RNA processing after transcription, all of the nonsense regions of RNA that are not needed to build a protein are removed and all of the necessary regions are spliced together
protein synthesis the assembling of a functional polypeptide
translation formation of a linear chain of amino acids using the info provided by a strand of mRNA (translated from mRNA language to amino acid language)
tRNA (transfer RNA) acts as a transfer truck, it delivers the appropriate amino acids to the ribosome that are needed to build the peptide coded by the mRNA attached to the ribosome
codon sequence of three bases on mRNA
sequence of three bases on mRNA sequence of three bases on tRNA that are complementary to codons on mRNA.
protein synthesis summary 1-gene activation 2-transcription (mRNA made from DNA) 3-mRNA moves to cytosol 4-mRNA/ribo bind 5-translation (tRNA makes protein coded by mRNA)
diffusion passive movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (down the concentration gradient)
concentration gradient the difference between high and low concentrations of a substance
factors that affect diffusion -concentration gradient -distance -molecule size -temperature -electrical current
the two ways an ion or molecule can diffuse across the plasma membrane 1-crossing the lipid portion of the membrane 2-passing through a membrane channel
membrane channels passageways through proteins in the plasma membrane
leak channels passive channels that are permanently open to allow passage across membrane
osmosis movement (diffusion) of water across membrane. "water follows salt" -water moves towards area with higher solute concentration
osmotic pressure the force with which water moves into a solution because of its solute concentration
hydrostatic pressure pressure against fluid
most membranes are freely permeable to ___ water
osmolarity total solute concentration of a solution
tonicity how the fluid affects the cell (fluid shift)
isotonic causes no fluid shift
hypotonic less solute than the cell. causes water to flow into the cell
hypertonic more solute than the cell, causes water to flow out of the cell
hemolysis water flows into a red blood cell in a hypotonic solution causing it to swell and rupture
crenation fluid leaves the cell when placed in a hypertonic solution which causes the cells to dehydrate and shrivel up
carrier mediated transport proteins bind specific molecules and carry them across the plasma membrane
contratransport when a carrier protein can bind more than one type of molecule and transport two substances the same direction at the same time
countertransport carrier protein transports one substance into cell and then binds a different substance and transports it out of the cell
two types of carrier mediated transport facilitated diffusion active transport
facilitated diffusion carrier proteins transport substances across membrane down the concentration gradient (uses no ATP)
active transport carrier proteins move molecules against the concentration gradient. requires ATP
ion pumps carrier proteins that move sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium across membranes
exchange pumps ion pumps that perform countertransport
sodium-potassium ATPase the carrier protein sodium-potassium carrier protein that is active is sodium-potassium exchange pumps
secondary active transport doesn't use ATP for transport but must use it to maintain homeostasis after the transport (ex- glucose can be transported into the cell with sodium but later ATP is required to move sodium back out of the cell)
vesicular transport materials are moved in or out of the cell in vesicles that form at, or fuse with, the plasma membrane
two types of vesicle transport 1-endocytosis 2-exocytosis
endocytosis extracellular materials (fluids and solutes) are packaged in vesicles at the cell membrane and brought into the cell. Lysosomes then bind to the vesicle and digest it or digest the material inside for use by the cell
three types of endocytosis 1-receptor mediated 2-pinocytosis 3-phagocytosis
receptor mediated endocytosis when a specific target ligand binds the receptors on plasma membrane the ligand is then enclosed in a vesicle and brought into the cell
pinocytosis "cell drinking" -extracellular fluid is brought into the cell in vesicles
phagocytosis uses pseudopods to engulf a large solid object (bacteria, etc) and form a vesicle around the object bringing it into the cell for digestion/destruction
exocytosis vesicle inside of the cell moves towards the plasma membrane and fuses with it, vesicle contents are released outside the cell. used to expel hormones, waste products, etc.
types of passive transport (dont require ATP) simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
types of transport that require ATP active transport, secondary active transport, endocytosis and exocytosis
is the inside of the cell positively or negatively charged? negative charge due to proteins in cytoplasm
is the extracellular fluid positively or negatively charged? positive charge due to cations in extracellular fluid
potential difference the difference between an positive and negative charge when they are separated by a barrier
transmembrane potential the difference between the + charge outside the cell and the - charge inside the cell. they are separated by the plasma membrane
volt the unit of measure of potential difference
resting potential transmembrane potential of an undisturbed cell
millivolt one thousandth of a volt
potential energy stored energy that can be released to do work (like the energy of the transmembrane potential)
some processes that rely on transmembrane potential? transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, secretion by glands
cell division a cell divides into two identical daughter cells
apoptosis programmed cell death. some cells have a gene that causes the cell to destroy itself under certain conditions
DNA replication duplication of a cell's DNA
mitosis division of the cell's nucleus in somatic cells
meiosis the formation of sex cells
helicase the enzyme that unwinds DNA and disrupts the hydrogen bonds between its nitrogenous bases prior to DNA replication
DNA polymerase enzyme that binds nitrogenous bases with complementary nucleotides dissolved in nucleoplasm.
covalent bond chemical bond characterized by one or more pairs of shared electrons.
ligase any of a class of enzymes that catalyse the formation of covalent bonds and are important in the synthesis and repair of biological molecules, such as DNA
interphase the phase of a cell's life cycle when the cell is performing normal functions of the cell and if necessary preparing for cell division
the four phases of interphase G0=cell performing normal functions G1=cell begins preparation for division by producing enough organelles for 2 complete cells S=DNA replication G2=last minute protein synthesis before cell division
cytokinesis division of cytoplasm into two new cells (the final stage of cell division)
The stages of mitosis "toilet rug" P-MAT: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Stages of cell life cycle 1- interphase (normal function and prep for division) 2- mitosis [nuclear division] (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) 3- cytokinesis (cytoplasm divides)
chromatid copy of original DNA created during DNA replication
DNA replication occurs at what stage of life cycle? the S phase of interphase when the cell is preparing for mitosis
centromere the point where two chromatids (new strands of DNA) are connected to each other
mitotic rate rate of cell division
stem cells cells that maintain the cell population by repeated cycles of cell division. Their only function is reproduction. each division produces one normal functioning cell and one stem cell.
M-phase promoting factor enzyme made of the proteins Cdc2 and cyclin that triggers cell division in some cells when levels get high enough
growth factor hormones (peptides) that stimulate cell division
repressor genes genes that inhibit cell division
telomeres the terminal protective covering on the ends of DNA strands (tips of the shoelaces). with each division part of telomere breaks off. When it gets to short it signals repressor gene to stop division
tumor (neoplasm) an abnormality causes cell growth and division to exceed the rate of cell death causing tissue to enlarge
metastasis when malignant cells spread to far away tissue via the circulatory or lymph systems and create a secondary tumor
invasion when tumor cells spread to surrounding tussue
secondary tumor a tumor far away from the original tumor
malignant tumor A tumor that invades surrounding tissues, is usually capable of producing metastases, may recur after attempted removal, and is likely to cause death unless adequately treated.
oncogenes the mutated genes that control cell growth causing malignancy (cancer)
cancer illness where genetic mutations in cells disrupt control of cell growth and division causing malignant cells
cell differentiation the development of specific cell features by "turning off" certain genes (all body cells have the same DNA. their structure and function is determined by which genes are used and which are not)
tissue specialized cells with specific capabilities grouped together for a common function
Created by: ed8198