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A&P1 - Ch 3

A typical cell is aka... A composite cell
3 main parts of the cell 1. plasma membrane 2. cytoplasm (cytosol + organelles) 3. nucleus
Define the fluid mosaic model Theory explaining that molecules are arranged in a mosaic that is fluid
What holds membranes together? Chemical interactions: Hydrophobic/hydrophilic arrangement of phospholipids, and raft formation
What are the properties of phospholipid rafts? They form a more rigid floating platform, help organize functions at the membrane surface, contain richer supply of cholestrol, and they can pinch inward
What does cholesterol provide for the membrane? Rigidity
Do water or water-soluble molecules pass easily through the membrane? Why? No because the inner portion of the membrane is hydrophobic, which will not permit water (hydrophilic) to readily pass through
Function of membrane glycoproteins Serve as identification markers. Cells can recognize "self."
Functions of membrane proteins 1. Transport of materials in/out of cell 2. structural support 3. Receptors for chemical messengers 4. Enzymes that catalyze reactions
Smooth ER synthesizes... 1. lipids 2. carbohydrates 3. create membrane for use throughout cell
Smooth ER stores ____ Ca2+ from cell interior
Difference between proteins produces by free and bound ribosomes. Free ribosomes produce proteins for domestic use; bound ribosomes produce proteins for export out of cell or to be embedded in plasma membrane
Are all Golgi vesicles immediately transported to the cell membrane? No, some vesicles remain inside the cell and serve as storage vessels
Where do lysosomes originate? They are vesicles that pinch off from Golgi (therefore they are membranous)
What do lysosomes digest? Proteins, old organelles, and ingested particles such as bacteria
Undigested material results in a _______ Residual body, which either is moved out of the cell or eaten by a macrophage.
Describe the structure of a proteosome Hollow, cylindrical drum made up of protein subunits (non-membranous)
What do proteosomes digest? Proteins that have been tagged with ubiquitins. Proteins can either be misfolded proteins or regular proteins that are no longer needed.
What is the purpose of a peroxisome? To detoxify harmful substances.
Where are peroxisomes normally found in the body? The liver and kidneys - these organs are responsible for detoxification
What is the main difference between lysosomes and proteosomes? Both breakdown proteins, but lysosomes can break down many proteins at once while proteosomes only break down proteins one at a time.
How many membranes are in a mitochondria 2 - outer and inner
Mitochondria provide ___% of a cell's energy 95%
Can mitochondria replicate? Yes, they contain their own DNA and can undergo mitosis to produce equal daughter cells
The number of mitochondria in a cell can be directly related to... its amount of activity (e.g. large quantity in muscle cells)
Describe the nuclear membrane Consists of two membranes that contain nuclear pores
What is the purpose of cytockeleal elements? Provide support and allow cell movement and meachnaims that can move the cell or its parts
Do ribosomes and other organelles "freely" move about the cell? No, they are contained within a cytoskeletal lattice
Describe Microfilament (4) 1. small of the fibers 2. known as "cellular muscles" 3. Composed of thin, twisted strands of protein that like parallel to the long axis of the cell 4. Can slide past each other, causing shortening of the cell
Describe Intermediate Filaments 1. Slightly bigger than MF 2. Twisted proteins 3. form much of the cell supporting framework
Describe Microtubules 1. Thickest of the fibers 2. Tiny hollow tubes composed of protein subunites 3. Function is to move things around the cell
Description and Function of Microvilli Fingerlike projections that increase the absoprtive surface area of epithelial cells - found in the lining of small intestine
Description and Function of Cilia Cylinders made of microtubules, shorter and numerous in the respiratory system, function is to move substances across the cell
Description and Function of Flagella Cylinders made of microtubules - only found in human sperm
Desmosomes Fibers on cell outer surface interlock with each other, anchored internally by IF. Two types: SPOT, connecting adjacent membranes, BELT, encircle entire cell
Gap Junctions membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other - form gaps that join the cytoplasm of 2 cells or fuse membranes into a single structure
Tight Junctions Join adjacent cells by collars, molecules cannot permeate the cracks, found in the intestines
Created by: jerricababy