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chapter 10-13

review for chpt 10-13

QuestionAnswer
What are the nerves that innervate the skin called plexuses
Describe a motor tract that carry information from the brain down the spinal cord & toward the periphery AKA descending tracts ex. Corticospinal tract carries motor info from the cortical region of the brain to the spinal cord
Term to describe hopping action potential along the axon from one node to another Saltatory Conduction
What do photoreceptors do Stimulate light energy
When sodium moves inward name the action potential phase Depolarization
If you have Crutch Palsy, what nerve is affected Axillary nerve (Brachial Plexus)
What happens if the phrenic nerves is cut or severed Impaired breathing Motor impulses to the diaphragm are interrupted, & the person cannot breath normally. Injured person usually needs a ventilator
What is arachnoid mater Middle layer of meninges because the membrane looks like a spiderweb
Name the 4 major areas of the brain Cerebrum • Frontal lobe • Parietal lobe • Occipital lobe • Temporal lobe Diencephalon • Thalamus • Hypothalamus Brainstem • Midbrain • Pons • Medulla oblongata Cerebellum
Fatty insulated material protects what AKAMyelin sheath—protects & insulates the AXON
Frontal, temporal, occipital, & parietal for what area of the brain Cerebrum
Study Cranial Nerve VIII Vestibulocochlear (Sensory Nerve) Sense of hearing & balanceEquilibrium Damage may cause loss of hearing, balance or both
Sclera- Outermost layer of the eyeball covered by the conjunctiva Tough fibrous connective tissue that covers the eyeball Helps contain the content of the eye Shapes the eye Is the site of attachment for the extrinsic eye muscles
What is gustatory sensation is related to A sense of taste is often called the social sense as in “let’s do lunch”
If you are unable to extend the hip & flex the knee what nerve is that Sciatic nerve
Cerebral surface that looks like speed bumps. What is the name Convolutions or gyri/gyrus
Broca’s area Part of the frontal lobe concerned with motor speech • If damaged (ex. Stroke) slowed, non fluent speech
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nerves do what Sympathetic— • Leave the spinal cord @ the thoracic & lumbar levels Parasympathetic neurons • Leave the CNS @ the level of the brain stem & sacrum
cord injuries what levels have different effects
What is the space between the axon of one neuron & the dendrite of another Axon terminals
Cranial nerve X “wanderer” Vagus Nerve-- visceral muscle movement & sensations movement & secretion of the digestive system Sensory for reflex regulation of blood pressure Innervates the tongue, pharynx, larynx & lungs, stomach, intestines Damage can be fatal—nerve dama
Know the anatomy of the brain
Astrocytes Form a blood brain barrierstar shaped cells Anchor or bind blood vessels to nerves for support Acts as phagocytes Secrete nerve growth factors
26. Spinal nerves are grouped & sorted where plexuses
Subarachnoid space Space between L3 & L4 – top of the hip bone. Site for a lumbar puncture Between the arachnoid layer & pia mater of a meninge Filled with CSF
28. Reflexes—what regulates blood pressure Baroreceptor reflex
Occipital lobes Located @ back of the head Visual cortex Sensory fibers send info to the visual cortex, where it is interpreted as sight Vision related functions such as reading Damage causes cortical blindness
Patellar/knee jerk • Withdrawl • Ankle jerk/ Achilles tendon • Abdominal • Babinski • baroreceptor Different reflexes—ex babinski reflex
Nerves that supply arm, forearm & hand Axillary nerves in the Brachial Plexus (c5-c8, T1
What makes white matter white Myelinated fibers called tracts
Secretions in the eye & nose are tears
Parasympathetic & sympathetic, what does each do Sympathetic Nervous System = FIGHT OR FLIGHT • Stress or feeling threatened • Periods short • Laughter, play & rest & relaxation diminish sympathetic outflow & are good buffers against stress
Parasympathetic & sympathetic, what does each do Parasympathetic Nervous System= FEED OR BREED • Quiet & nonstressful conditions • Regulates digestion & reproduction function AKA feed & breed or resting & digesting • Paradoxical fear—parasympathetics can be activated in hopeless situations—uncontro
What does the different reflexes do Withdrawl—protects from injury Pupillary—regulates amount of light that enters the eye Baroreceptor—causes heart & blood vessels to respond in a way that restores blood pressure to normal Babinskis-stroking lateral sole heel to toe---curling of t
Describe the function of the Phrenic Nerve stimulates the diaphragm causing it to contact
area of skin innervcated by the spinal cord, (particular nerve it serves dermatome
Created by: sherrywoodard