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A&P1 - Ch 1

QuestionAnswer
Define Hypothesis, Theory & Law Hypothesis - idea to be tested in experiment Theory - Hypothesis that has been proven by experiments to have high degree of confidence Law - Theory with unusually high confidence
Science is affected by _______ Culture
Culture is affected by _______ Society
Define biology. The study of life
Name two major types of anatomy and state their difference. Gross Anatomy - study of body seen with naked eye. Microscopic Anatomy - study of body requiring a microscope.
The study of cells is called ______ Cytology
The study of tissues is called _______ Histology
How many cells are in the body? Over 100 trillion
Define Anatomy The science of the normal structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts.
Define Physiology Science of the normal functions of organisms.
Scientific terms are based in what languages? Latin or Greek
What is the Terminologia anatomica? Does physiology have a similiar list? The official list of anatomical terms. No.
What are the characteristics of life that are considered most important in humans? Responsiveness, Conductivity, Growth, Respiation, Digestion, Absorption, Secretion, Excretion, Circulation, Reproduction
Define autopoeisis Living organims are self-organized and self-maintaining
Define Cell Theory If it is made of one or more cells, then it is alive!
Define metabolism The sum total of all physical and chemical reactions occuring in the living body.
What are the levels of organization? Chemical - Organelle - Cellular - Tissue - Organs - Organ systems - Organism
Organization of ___________ separates living from nonliving material chemical structures
Define cytoplasm A gel-like substance that contains macromolecules in a living matter
It is the function of _______ that allow the cell to live. organelles
Define cell. The smallest and most numerous units that possess and exhibit characteristics of life. It contains a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm within a membrane.
Tissue cells are surrounded by _____ A non-living matrix
4 types of tissues 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous
What is the most complex organizational unit of the body? Organ systems
Name system(s) involved in support & movement Integumentary, Muscular, Skeletal
Name system(s) involved in communication, control, & integration. Nervous & Endocrine
Name system(s) involved in transportation a defense Circulatory & Lymphatic
Name system(s) involved in respiration, nutrition & excretion. Respiratory, Digestive & Excretory
Name system(s) involved in reproduction & development. Reproductive
Define an organism.I A sum greater than its parts.
Define the anatomical position. Reference point. Body erect with arms at sides and palms facing forward.
Define bilateral symmetry Means that the right and left sides of the body are mirror images
Ipsilateral vs. Contralateral Ipsilateral means body parts are on the same side of the body (Rt arm and Rt leg) whereas Contralateral means body parts are on opposite sides of the body (Rt and Lt arms).
Axial Subdivision Head, neck & tors
Appendicular subdivision upper & lower extremities
Abdominal Regions Rt & Lt Hypochondriac - Epi & Hypogastric - Rt & Lt Lumbar - Umbilical - Rt & Lt Iliac
Dorsal Body cavity contains... Cranial & spinal cavities
Ventral body cavity contains (and their subdivisions)... Thoracic & Abdominopelvic cavities. Thoracic cavity include right and left pelraul cavities & mediastinum. Abdominopelvic cavity contains abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Define lumen The hollow area of an organ
Medullary vs. Cortical Medullary refers to inner region of an organ; Cortical refers to outter region of an organ.
Basal vs. Apical Terms used in organs that are cone-shaped; Basal refers to the widest part of the organ whereas apical refers to the narrow tip.
Define homeostasis Relatively constant states maintained by the body; the internal environment around cells remains constant.
What is meant by complementary of structure and function? Anatomical structures are designed to perform specific functions
4 Components of homeostatic control mechanisms 1. sensor mechanism 2. integrating center 3. effector mechanism 4. feedback
Define negative feedback INHIBITORY; it produces an action oppositve to the change that activates the system; responsible for maintaining homeostasis; STABILIZING
Define positive feedback STIMULATORY; amplify the change that is occuring; produce destabilizing effects
Define feed-forward Occurs when information flows ahead to another process or feedback loop to trigger a change in anticipation of an event (e.g. small intestine secretion before food has arrived)
3 Levels of homeostatic control 1. Intracellular - genes/enzymes 2. Intrinsic - regulation within tissues/organs, chemical signals or built-in mechanisms 3. Extrinsic - regulation from organ to organ, nerve or endocrine signals
Define atrophy Wasting effects of advancing age
Created by: jerricababy