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CH 17

Endocrine

QuestionAnswer
Defintiion of Endocrine System Glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones
Definition of Endocrinology The study of this system and the diagnosis and treatment of its disorders
Definition of Endocrine glands organs that are traditional sources of hormones
Definition of Hormones Chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another tissue or organ
What is the hypophyseal portal system? Primary capillaries in hypothalamus connected to secondary capillaries in adenohypophysis by portal venules.
How many hormones are produced by the Hypothalamus? 8 hormones - 6 regulate the anterior pituitary and two are leased into capillaries in the posterior pituitary
Two gonadotropin hormones Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
Difference between exocrine glands and endocrine glands Exocrine glands have ducts and carry secretion to an epithelial surface or the mucosa of the digestive tract; Endocrine glands have no ducts, contain dense fenestrated capillary networks, are internal secretions
Differences between Nervous and Endocrine systems Nervous: electrical and chemical internal communication, reacts quickly, stops quickly, adapts to long term stimuli quickly, affects a targeted and specific organ Endocrine: only chemical communication, reacts slowly, adapts slowly, widespread effects
How many segments does the adenohypophysis have and how is it linked to hypothalamus? 2 segments: pars distalis (anterior lobe) and pars tuberalis (small mass of cells adhering to stalk) Hypophyseal portal system link hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
How many parts does the neurohypophysis have? How does it communicate with the hypothalamus? Three parts: median eminence, infundibulum and posterior lobe Nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus pass down to stalk as hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract and end in posterior lobe
What are the six hypothalmic hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary? Thyroid-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone releasing hormone, Prolactin Inhibiting hormone, somatostatin
What are the two hypothalamic hormones that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary? Oxytocin (OT) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What are the two gonadotropin homones that are released from the anterior pituitary? Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH)
What is the function of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)? Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
What is the function of Antidiuretic hormone? (ADH) Increase water retention, reduce urine volume, prevent dehydration, vasoconstriction
What is the function of oxytocin (OT)? promotes feelings of sexual satisfactiona nd emotional bonding between partners, stimulates labor contractions during childbirth, stimulates flow of milk during lactation, promotes emotional bonding between lactating mother and infant
Effects of Growth Hormone Induces liver to produce growth stimulants - Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I) or somatomedins (IGF-II) Increased protein synthesis Increased lipid metabolism, Carbohydrate metabolism Electrolyte balance Bone growth
What is the function of the pineal gland? Synthesizes melatonin from serotonin during the night
Which hormones are secreted by the Thymus? Thymopoietin, thymosin, thymulin which stimulate development of other lymphatic organs
What is the largest endocrine gland? Thyroid gland
Describe the structure of the thyroid gland. Made up of thyroid follicles which are sacs that compose most of the thyroid, sacs are filled with protein rich colloid, follicular cells are simple cuboidal epithelium that lines the follicles
What hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland? Thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, calcitonin
Created by: amsd