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AP chem ch2

chemical level of AP excelsior

chemistry science of the structure of matter
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
mass the amount of material in matter (on earth mass=weight, in space you have no weight but have mass)
atom the smallest stable units of matter
subatomic particles the particls that make up atoms. Protons, neutrons, electrons
electrical charges of subatomic particles protons (+), neutrons (n), electrons (-)
atoms have ___ numbers of protons and neutrons equal
atomic number number of protons in an atom
simplest atom hydrogen, 1 proton and 1 electron
element a pure substance composed of atoms of just one type (ie- O2)
trace elements elements present in small amounts
isotopes atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (ie- hydrogen can have 1, 2 or 3 netrons [H, 2H, 3H])
radioisotopes unstable isotopes that break down and emit subatomic particles (radiation). Emissions (radiation) can damage cells or molecules)
radioactive decay the breakdown of radioisotopes. Emits radiation (subatomic particles)
half-life time required for one half of a given amount of a radioisotope to decay
mass number the total number of subatomic particles in the nucleus of an atom (P+N=mass#)
atomic weight the actual mass of an atom
atom's 1st energy level (e- shell) holds how many electrons? 2
atom's 2nd and 3rd energy levels (e- shells) contains how many electrons? 8
valence shell the outer electron shell
inert elements that do not readily participate in chemical reactions because their outer electron rings are full
reactive elements that interact with other atoms because their outer electron shells are not full
chemical bond holds atoms together after a reaction
three types of chemical bonds 1-ionic bonds 2-covalent bonds 3-hydrogen bonds
molecule structure of atoms held together by covalent bonds (sharing electrons)
compound chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more DIFFERENT elements (does not have to be via a covalent bond)
why aren't all compunds considered molecules? b/c some compounds involve ionic bonds instead of covalent bonds
why aren't all molecules considered compounds? b/c some molecules are made up of the same types of atoms (O2)
ion atoms or molecules with a positive or negative electrical charge
cation an atom or molecule with a positive(+) charge
anion an atom or molecule with a negative(-) charge
what gives an ion its electrical charge? an unequal number of protons and electrons (each proton +1, each electron -1) Na++ has two more protons than electrons
electron donor loses electrons to another atom/molecule making it a cation (+)
electron acceptor gains electrons from a donor making it an anion (-)
ionic bond ions held together by the attraction created by their opposite charges (+ and -)
ionic compound compound formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions (ie-NaCl)
covalent bond atoms complete their outer rins and become stable by sharing electrons with other atoms
single covalent bond when atoms share one pair of electrons in a covalent bond (ie- hydrogen molecule) H2
double covalent bond atoms share two pair of electrons in a covalent bond (Oxygen molecule)
free radical an ion or molecule with an unpaired electron in its outer energy level. this makes it highly reactive and destructive towards compounds like proteins
types of covalent bonds found with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules? HONC-1234. hydrogen single, oxygen double, nitrogen triple and carbon dioxide quadruple covalent bonds
nonpolar covalent bonds atoms of the same element share electrons equally making them electrically neutral
polar covalent bonds when a molecule is made of atoms of different elements, one element has a stronger attraction to electrons giving that element a slight negative charge and the other a slight positive charge (in H2O, O2 attracts e- stronger therefore is slightly negative)
polar molecule a molecule with a polar covalent bond. makes one side of the molecule + and one side -
hydrogen bond attraction between + charge on a hydrogen and a - charge of an oxygen or other molecule with a polar covalent bond
are hydrogen bonds weak or strong? weak, they can't create molecules but they can attract molecules or change their shape
surface tension hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules that act as a barrier preventing small objects from entering the water.
solid state of matter that maintains shape and volume at normal temps and pressures
liquid state of matter with a constant volume but not a fixed shape
gas state of matter with no constant volume or shape
chemical reaction chemical bonds between atoms forming or breaking
reactants the substances that react with each other in a chemical reaction
products the result of a chemical reaction between reactants
metabolism all of the chemical reactions taking place in the body at a given time
work the movement of an object or change in the chemical structure of matter
energy ability to perform work
kinetic energy energy of motion (energy doing work)
potential energy stored energy (energy with potential to do work)
each time energy is transferred, some is released as ___ heat
catabolism (decomposition reaction) the breakdown of a molecule into smaller fragments. releases energy.
anabolism (synthesis reaction) assembly of small molecules into larger ones through the formation of chemical bonds. requires use of energy.
heat increase in random molecular motion
dehydration synthesis forming a complex molecule by the removal of water (opposite of hydrolysis)
how many chemical elements does the body contain? 26
nutrients essential elements and molecules obtained from diet
metabolites all molecules (including nutrients) that can be synthesized or broken down by our body
inorganic compound does not contain hydrogen or carbon as part of its primary structure
organic compound contains carbon and/or hydrogen as part of its primary structure
hydrolysis chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water (opposite of dehydration synthesis)
most important inorganic compounds in the body CO2, H2O, O2
most important substance in the body H2O
H2O is how much of total body weight? 2/3
solubility organic or inorganic molecules will dissolve or break up in water
solution molecular mixture of two or more substances.
solvent the medium in which molecules, ions or atoms are dispersed in (the liquid portion of solution)
solute substance dispersed in liquid (solvent) in a solution
aqueous solution a solution in which water is the solvent
unique properties of water solubility, reactivity (hydrolysis, etc), high heat capacity, lubrication
ionization (dissociation) compounds held together via ionic bonds break apart in water b/c the bonds are broken by the +/- poles of H2O molecules
electrolytes soluble inorganic molecules whose ions conduct electrical current
result of hyperkalemia (too much K+) dysrhythmia
result of hypokalemia (too little K+) muscular paralysis
hydrophilic having a strong affinity for water b/c they are polar and their electrical charges attract H2O
hydrophobic nonpolar molecules do not interact readily with water b/c there is no electrical charges to attract H2O
NaCl sodium chloride Na+, Cl-
KCl potassium chloride K+, Cl-
NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate Na+, HCO3-
MgCl2 magnesium chloride Mg++, 2Cl-
colloid solution containing proteins or other large molecules that won't settle out of the solvent
suspension contains large particles but if left undisturbed, gravity will cause solute particles to settle out
pH hydrogen ion concentration; represents a negative logarithm in mol/L
neutral pH 7
pH less than 7 acidic
pH greater than 7 basic (alkaline)
logarithm for pH 6 [H+]=1x10^-6 mol/L
normal blood pH 7.35-7.45
acid solute that dissociates in solution and releases H+ ions, lowers pH
proton donor a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron (H+ is made up of 1 p+ and 1 e- so if e- is lost it only leaves a proton)
base solute that removes H+ ions from solution (ie hydroxide OH-)
many bases release ___ atoms which bind H+ to form H2O OH- (hydroxide)
strong acid/strong base dissociates completely in H2O
weak acid/weak base does not disociate completely in H2O
bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer system bicarb binds hydrogen forming carbonic acid HCO3- + H+ = H2CO3
salt an ionic compound containing any cation except H+ and any anion except hydroxide. Salts dissociate in H2O due to their ionic bonds
neutral salt salt that does not change pH b/c it doesn't affect H+ or OH- concentrations (ie NaCL)
buffer compounds that stabilize the pH of a solution by removing or replacing H+ ions; consists of a weak acid and its related salt
NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate
carbohydrate an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio; important energy source (ie sugars and starches)
lactic acid organic acid generated by active muscle tissue. is neutralized by the carbonic acid/bicarb buffer system
monosaccharides (simple sugars) a carbohydrate containing 3 to 7 carbon atoms; dissolves readily in H2O (triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose, heptose)
triose monosaccharide with 3 carbon atoms
tetrose monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms
pentose monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms
hexose monosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms
heptose monosaccharide with 7 carbon atoms
isomers molecules with the same molecular formula but the molecule is arranged in a different 3D structure giving it a different function (ie glucose and fructose)
disaccharides a carbohydrate made up of two monosaccharides joined together (sucrose aka table sugar)
all carbs except for monosaccharides must be broken down via ___ before the body can use them for energy hydrolysis
excess sugar is stored as ___ fat
polysaccharides multiple monosaccharides and/or disaccharides linked together by repeated dehydration synthesis (starches, glycogen, cellulose)
glycogen a complex polysaccharide produced and stored in muscles
cellulose a polysaccharide found in cell walls of plants that humans cant digest
lipids fats, oils and waxes that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (like carbs) except ratio of carbon to hydrogen is 1:2
are lipids soluble or insoluble in H2O? insoluble in H2O
which provides more energy gram for gram, carbs or lipids? lipids
fatty acids long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached to a carboxyl group at one end; the carboxyl end associates with H2O the rest of the molecule does not
eicosanoids lipids derived from arachidonic acid (a fatty acid) that include prostaglandins and leukotrienes
prostaglandins short chain fatty acids that are released by cells to coordinate local cellular activities (ie pain stimulation)
hormones chemical messengers that travel in blood stream and affect a distant part of the body (prostaglandins affect a local site, not a distant one)
glycerides fatty acids attached to simple sugars (monosaccharides)
triglyceride glycerol attached to three fatty acids; acts as an energy source, insulator and protects organs
steroids large lipid molecules with distinct carbon framework (cholesterol)
cholesterol steroid that makes up plasma membranes, regulates metabolism and process fats in the liver
proteins chains of amino acids that are the most abundant organic components of the body (approx 20% of TBW)
7 categories of protein function body support, contractile movement, cellular transport, buffering, metabolic regulation (enzymes), control (homrones), defense (antibodies)
proteins are made up of chains of ___ ___ amino acids
5 components of amino acids a central carbon atom, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxyl group, R group (variable group that gives the amino acid its properties/function
peptide bond the bond that links amino acids to form proteins; dehydration synthesis creates a covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one and the amino group of another
peptides molecules of amino acids held together with peptide bonds
polypeptide peptide chains made up of three or more amino acids (protiens contain at least 100 amino acids but usually contain approx 1000 or more)
do proteins have a positive or negative electrical charge? negative, they act as an anion giving the interior of a cell a negative charge
4 levels of protein structure 1-PRIMARY-amino acid sequence 2-SECONDARY-bonds between atoms in the chain (H+ bonds), 3-TERTIARY-coiling and folding that gives protein 3D shape 4-QUATERNARY-individual polypeptide chains linked to make a protein
collagen the body's most abundant structural protein
two classes (types) of protein structure fibrous and globular
fibrous protein pleated flattened sheets that are durable and used to form body structures
golubular protein compact, rounded and readily enters aqueous solution (hemoglobin, enzymes, hormones, etc)
protein __ determines its function and ___ ___ determine it's shape shape; amino acids
environmental conditions that can alter protein shape ionic composition, temperature, pH, H+ bonding to other molecules in solution
enzymes glubular proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body
substrates the reactants in enzyme catalyzed reactions
active site the region on the enzyme that binds the specific substrates
enzyme specificity each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction
enzyme saturation when all available enzyme molecules are bound and reacting at top speed further increases in substrate concentration with not affect the reaction rate
cofactors ions or molecules that must bind enzyme before substrates can bind (ie Ca++, Mg++)
coenzymes nonprotein, organic molecules that function as cofactors (many are vitamins)
nucleic acids large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus that store and transport genetic information (DNA/RNA)
DNA deoxyriboneucleic acid; store info needed to synthesize proteins
RNA ribonucleic acid; carries info from DNA to sites of protein synthesis
nucleotides the two sugar "backbones" or "strands" of the DNA
nucleic acid infor is stored in the sequences of ___ ___ linked to their complements via hydrogen bonds nitrogenous bases
adenine binds to ___ thymine
cytosine binds to ___ guanine
Created by: ed8198



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