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Week 5

10/09

QuestionAnswer
Q The pericardium is supplied with blood by the pericardiacophrenic aa.(veins with same name). Through what vessels does blood travel to arrive at this point? A From the subclavian to the internal thoracic to the pericardiacophrenic aa.
Q The pericardium is innervated by the phrenic n (C3-5). Where does the phrenic n. refer pain to? A The phrenic n. refers pain to the ipsilateral upper shoulder.
Q Other than the phrenic n., where does the pericardium recieve innervation from? A From vagus nn., and also "sympathetic trunks" (vasomotor)
Q Name the smooth/thin walled area of the R atrium? A sinus venarum
Q These funciton to baffle the blood and prevent clotting/foaming in the R. Atrium. A pectinate mm. These are located ANT to crista terminalis
Q In the R. atrium, there is an ear-like pouch (so named b/c it also has pectinate mm.), which stores overflow blood, and elimates backflow. What is this called? A R. Auricle
Q In the R. Atrium, at the external aspect of the crista terminalis there is an indentation/sulcus. What is this called? A Sulcus terminalis
Q What does the crista terminalis separate in the R atrium? A The crista terminalis separates the rough/smooth areas.
Q Where in the heart is the remnant of the foramen ovale located? What is it called? A The remnant is in the interatrial septum, visualized from both atria. It is called the fossa ovalis
Q What does "limbus" mean? A lip/edge
Q In the R atrium, where is the orifice for the coronary sinus located? A between the tricuspid valve, and the inf vena cava orifice
Q How much of the blood recieved by the R ventricle is actually from the RA? A only 20% or so. This means that approx 80% is from gravity.
Q what does "infundibulum" mean? A funnel
Q What structure in the R ventricle most resembles the pectinate mm. in the RA? A the trabeculae carneae
Q What is the smooth part of the RV called? A the conus arteriosus. this is the tapered sup end of the RV
Q What structure in the RV is similar to the crista terminalis in the RV? A the crista terminalis separates rough/smooth walls in the RA. This is similar to the supraventricular crest in the RV which does the same thing.
Q How do you adjust a R bundle branch block subluxation? A definately adjustor on the cranial sutures, or gomphosys joints.
Q The "septomarginal trabeculae" is a curved bundle of m. from the inf. IV septum to which of the papillary mm.? What does this structure contain? A The septomarginal trab. extends to the ANT papillary mm. (there are ant/pos/septal papillary mm. that attach to the valve), and contains the R AV bundle branch.
Q How many papillary mm. are there in the RV, what are the called, and which is largest? A 3. ant/pos/septal. The ANT is the largest, and contains the R AV bundle branch
Q In the RV there are 3 papillary mm. that correspond to the three cusps of the tricuspid valve. How are these connected? A chordae tendineae
Q The pulmonary trunk lays mostly horizontally and inserts into the RV at the pulmonary valve. What kind of valve is this, and what cusps does it have? A It is a semilunar valve, w/ L/R/ant cusps
Q by definition, arteries lead towards/away from the heart? Is the pulmonary trunk an a.? A arteries lead AWAY from the heart. The pulmonary trunk IS an artery that exits blood from the RV, splits into the L/R pulmonary aa., and then takes non-oxygenated blood to the lungs.
Q T/F the LA is better all around than the RA? A T. The LA is larger, has more smooth wall, and is even thicker than the RA. Also, it's auricle isn't as big. No one likes an Atria with a big ear. ALSO, there is less evidence of the the atria's big childhood screw-up, the fossa ovale
Q T/F the L auricle is the only place that the LA has pectinate mm.? A T, as opposed to the RA which has pectinate mm. to prevent clotting/frothing of incoming high pressure blood.
Q do the pulmonary VEINS have valves? A no. remember, veins go toward the heart, so these are entering the LA
Q Is the valve from the LA to the LV tricuspid or bicuspid? A biscupid. Tri cuspid on the R, and semilunar from the Ventricles to the great vessels
Q Which of the ventricles is just all-around better? Why? A The LV has walls 2x as thick, it's papillary mm. (ant/pos) are so huge they OVERLAP (that means less smooth wall), it still has chordae tendineae to both cusps from each pap. m, and it's trab. carn. are finer/more numerous. Screw RV, I'm on LV's team!
Q Which coronary (that means "Crown") artery is longer? A the R by a long shot
Q The R coronary artery supplies the RA, RV, some of LV, pos 1/3 of AV septum, and majority of SA/AV nodes. Visualize this. Now name it's branches A SA nodal artery (FROM the first branch), AV nodal artery (located deep), right marginal artery, and pos. IV artery.....easy enough, right?
Q The L coronary artery supplies the LA, LV, part of RV, ant 2/3 IV septum, and small part of SA/AV nodes. Visualize this. Now, name it's branches. A L marginal artery, ant. IV artery, and the circumflex branch
Q The ant IV artery is the first branch of the L coronary artery. What is another name for this artery? A the widowmaker, b/c is it most commonly occluded, and most problematic when occluded.
Q What is the second branch of the L coronary artery? A The circumflex branch, which may be considered a continuation of the L coronary artery, and runs through the AV sulcus.
Q Which coronary artery gives rise to the pos IV artery? A Well, they both do, but 75% of the time it's the R side. Whichever side it is, we say that it has arterial "dominance".
Q How is most of the venous blood from the heart drained? A By means of the coronary sinus, in the pos AV sulcus.
Q most of the venous blood of the heart drains into the coronary sinus, but some drains directly to heart chambers through what? A Thebesian vv., or smallest cardiac vv.
Q ***Where is the great cardiac vein located, and what does it drain? A ***The great cardiac vein/ant. IV vein, drains most of the LV into the L side of the coronary sinus.
Q How many divisions are there in the thoracic cavity, and what does each contain? A 3.....2 pleural cavities for lungs, and one mediastinum for heart/everything else
Q What is the name of the sup border of the mediastinum? A the sup thoracic aperture
Q The mediastinum is divided into sup/inf parts. Where is this division made anatomically? A *** It is a line from the sternal angle to T5 disc space
Q How is the inf mediastinum divided? A ant, middle(heart itself) and pos
Q Other than the heart, what specifically is found in the middle mediastinum (of the inf division) A the pericardium and the roots of the great vessels
Q What is the pos border of the ant mediastinum (of the inf division)? What is the lat border? A the pericardium of the middle mediastinum, and laterally the parietal pleura
Q the sternopericardial lig, lymphatic structures, fat, bracnhes of int thoracic vessels, and inf thymus may all be found in what mediastinum? Visualize where these structures are. A the ant med. of the inf division. remember that the sup division has no sections to it, only the inf. Think about where all this is in relation to other mediastin-ii?
Q What vertebral levels mark the borders of the pos mediastinum? A T5-T12
Q The pericardium and the parietal pleura make up the ant/lat borders of what mediastinum? A the pos mediastinum
Q In what mediastinum would you find the esophagus, thoracic duct, thoracic nn., and the thoracic aorta? A the pos. mediastinum
Q What structures would be found in the sup mediastinum? A thymus gland, great vessels, arch of aorta w/ branches, SVC, vagus n, phrenic n, trachea, esophagus, etc....
Created by: GrossAnatomy1