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Ch.3 Cells

Anatomy & Physiology

39 inches 1 meter
1/100 or 0.01 meter 1 centimeter
1/1000 or 0.001 meter 1 millimeter
1/1,000,000 or 0.000001 meter 1 micrometer
1/1,000,000,000 or 0.000000001 meter 1 nanometer
1/10,000,000,000 or 0.0000000001 meter 1 angstrom
Basic unit of structure and function in all living things. cells
science that investigates the formation, structure and function of cells. cytology
Outer boundary of the cell cell membrane
Watery solution of minerals, gases and organic molecules that is found between the cell membrane and nucleus. cytoplasm
Suspended in cytoplasm in or near the center of the cell nucleus
functional substances “all the structures” in the cytoplasm organelles
Site of ATP production and storage mitochondria
Cell respiration takes place here = energy production mitochondria
Contains nucleolus - small sphere shaped body which contains ribosomes made of RNA and protein. (Ribosomes help with protein synthesis and RNA carries the instructions for protein synthesis out of the nucleolus into the cytoplasm). nucleus
Selectively permeable - permits entrance and exit of some materials while excluding the transfer of other substances. cell membrane
Responsible for reproduction (division) of the cell nucleus
Stores and packages secretions for discharge from the cell golgi apparatus
Involved in carbohydrate manufacturing golgi apparatus
Contain digestive enzymes that will destroy old worn out, damaged cells, bacteria or foreign matter lysosomes
Contribute to the process of inflammation lysosomes
Oval sacs lysosomes
Site of protein synthesis ribosomes
Roadway for transportation of materials used within the cells endoplasmic reticulum
ribosomes attached rough er
cholesterol synthesis and fat metabolism occur smooth er
Sweep materials across cell surfaces cilia
Provides motility for sperm cell flagella
Cells divide for growth and maintenance mitosis
Is a continual process with 5 stages or phases mitosis
Process of cell division of the sex cells meiosis
The egg of the female and the sperm of the male each reduce their number of chromosomes by half = 23 meiosis
Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration diffusion
Involves passive transport, no energy is required for this to occur diffusion/osmosis
Movement of water or any other dissolved particle through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration of a solution to an area of lower concentration of a solution. osmosis
have an equal amount of solutes and water, so the osmotic pressure is equal and there is no movement of water. isotonic solution
contain less solutes so water will move into a cell to disperse the concentration hypotonic solution
contains more solutes so water will move to dilute the concentration hypertonic solution
Water and material move from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. The size of the membrane pore determines which molecules are to be filtered filtration
Involves passive transport, can occur using blood pressure or gravity filtration
Involves active transport, energy is required for this process, ATP is the energy used facilitated diffusion
Carrier enzyme moves material into cells from an area of less concentration to an area of higher concentration, where they DON”T want to go facilitated diffusion
White blood cells engulf and destroy pathogens by this process phagocytosis
Cells engulf a large particle like a “Pac Man” and destroy them phagocytosis
This process involves a substance in solution, which is engulfed by the cell membrane pinocytosis
Kidney cells absorbs protein pinocytosis
Control the activities of the cell and facilitate cell division nucleus
A clear, semi-liquid medium that fills the spaces around the chromatin and the nucleoli nucleoplasm
Reservoir for RNA nucleolus
Contains two centrioles that are functional during animal cell division centrosome
Enzymes oxidize cell substances perioxisomes
Forms internal framework cytoskeleton
Method by which large molecules can enter the cell pinocytic vesicles
phase 1 Interphase
phase 2 Prophase
phase3 Metaphase
phase 4 Anaphase
phase 5 Telophase
necrosis/ apoptosis cell death
Created by: Chasityl



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