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neuroanatomy chp11

what are the 2 functional divisions of the Nervous system and their functions? autonomic (involuntary mvmts) and somatic (voluntary mvmts)
what are the 2 subdivisions of the autonomic NS? sympathetic and parasympathetic
what is the sympathetic NS responsible for? fight or flight response
what is the parasympathetic NS responsible for? conserve energy
what are the 2 subdivisions of the somatic NS? pyramidal and extrapyramidal
what is the function of the pyramidal subdivision of the somatic NS? initiation of mvmts
what is the function of the extrapyramidal subdivision of the somatic NS? indirect system-control tone and mvmt of primary mvmts
what is the function of dendrites? they give info to the soma. they are info receivers
what is the function of axons? they give info away from the soma
nodes of ranvier they are junction points. they help increase velocity.
axon hillock where soma meets axon
teledendria end buttons
presynaptic neuron ready to GIVE info
postsynaptic neuron ready to RECEIVE info
what are the 5 different types of synapses? axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic. 2 least common are: somatosomatic and dendrodendritic
what are the 4 types of glial cells? oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, astrocytes, and microglia
oligodendrocytes makes up the myelin of the CNS
Schwann cells makes up the myelin of the PNS
astrocytes make up the blood brain barrier, they send nutrients to neurons, and suspend/separate neurons.
microglia cleanup/housekeeper/phagocytosis
motor neurons (efferent) from brain to body (away)
sensory neurons (afferent) from body to brain
cerebrum aka cerebral cortex cortex= "bark" as in tree bark
what are 3 landmarks of the cerebrum? cerebral longitudinal fissure, lateral sulcus, central sulcus (aka central fissure)
cerebral longitudinal fissure divides L and R hemisphere
lateral sulcus divides temporal and frontal/parietal lobes
central sulcus (central fissure) divides frontal and parietal lobes
what are 3 landmarks of the frontal lobe? Broca's area, precentral gyrus, and premotor strip
Broca's area aka inferior frontal gyrus. aka frontal operculum. aka pars opercularis. in charge of motor planning for speech
precentral gyrus voluntary mvmts are initiated here
what are functions of the frontal lobe? planning initiation, inhibition of voluntary mvmts, perception, learning, memory
premotor region motor planning
parietal lobe function sensory detectors
2 landmarks of the parietal lobe postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule
postcentral gyrus primary sensory strip
inferior parietal lobule sensory association area
inferior parietal lobule is made up of which 2 parts? supramarginal and angular gyri
supramarginal part of the inferior parietal lobule motor speech planning
angular gyri part of the inferior parietal lobule comprehension of written material
temporal lobe function auditory reception
2 landmarks of the temporal lobe Heschl's gyrus and Wernicke's area
Heschl's gyrus (upper surface) all audition occurs here
Wernicke's area (posterior of superior temporal gyrus) comprehension/formulation of spoken language
occipital lobe fnc primary visual area and visual association areas
insula location located deep to the operculum (F, T, and P lobes)
insula functions emotion, body states (hunger, craving)
damage to insula apathy, inability to distinguish fresh food from rotten food, lost addiction to cigarettes
3 meningeal linings (from outer to inner) dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
most of the CSF arises from the _____ of each lateral ventricle choroid plexus
2 functions of the CSF excretion of waste products, transportation of hormones (endocrine sys)
pathway of CSF lateral ventricle to interventricular foramen of monroe to 3rd ventricle to cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricle
hydracephalus too much CSF which causes swelling therefore too much pressure in brain
3 types of myelinated fibers projection fibers, association fibers, commissural fibers
projection fibers afferent (ascending to brain), efferent (away to body)
association fibers send info between cortical regions within same hemisphere. 2 types: short and long
short association fibers connect cells in adjacent convolutions
long association fibers connect cortical regions within same hemisphere. Example: arcuate fasciculus: connects Broca's area to Wernicke's area
commissural fibers connect corresponding 2 hemispheres. corpus collosum
3 parts of the subcortex basal ganglia, hippocampal formation, diencephalic structures
basal ganglia group of cell bodies that are related to the control of background movement and initiation of movement patterns.
hippocampal formation memory function
thalamus (1 of 4 diencephalic structures) relay station for sensory info (touch, taste, pressure)
epithalamus (1 of 4 diencephalic structures) connects limbic system to other parts of the brain
subthalamus (1 of 4 diencenphalic structures) controls striated muscles (arms and legs). prevents flailing movements.
hypothalamus (1 of 4 diencephalic structures) controls reproduction, metabolic behavior (hunger, thirst), water balance, body temp, response to emotion
3 main cerebral arteries anterior, middle, posterior
anterior cerebral artery medial surface of frontal and parietal lobes: corpus collosum, basal ganglia
middle cerebral artery lateral surfaces of the hemispheres: temporal lobe, motor strip, Broca and Wernicke's areas, sensory reception and association areas
posterior cerebral artery occipital lobes, inferior layers of temporal lobe and upper midbrain and cerebellum
circle of willis a structure that the blood vessels form. creates redundancies in the cerebral circulation. helps lessen the strain by allowing blood flow from other areas of the circle if other area is blocked.
3 different types of obstructions of the cerebrovascular system thrombus, embolus, aneurysm
thrombus foreign body (blood clot or air bubble) that obstructs a blood vessel
embolus floating blood clot
aneurysm dilation or ballooning of blood vessels because of weak walls. if aneurysm ruptures, can lead to stroke.
the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum is separated by what? vermis
the primary fissure devides the cerebellar cortex into which 2 lobes? anterior (aka superior) and middle (aka inferior)
what does the anterior lobe (aka superior lobe) of the cerebellum do? coordinate postural movements
what does the middle lobe (aka inferior lobe) of the cerebellum do? helps with adjusting fine motor movements
what is the 3rd lobe of the cerebellum? flocculonodular lobe
flocculonodular lobe 3rd lobe of the cerebellum. located on the side of the cerebellum that is next to the cerebrum. it coordinates the body's position in space.
3 components of the brainstem medulla, pons, midbrain
cerebellum is also known as the little brain
cerebellum function coordinates motor commands with sensory input to control movement, aids motor memory and cognitive processing, helps modify the body's position, posture, balances muscle tension/movements based on the sensory info it receives
3 layers of the cerebellum (from outer to inner) molecular, Purkinje, granular
molecular layer of cerebellum made of golgi cells, basket cells, stellite cells
Purkinje layer of cerebellum made of purkinje cells (large neurons that form boundary between 1st and 3rd layers)
granular layer of cerebellum made of granular cells
5 tracts of the cerebellum dorsalspinocerebllar, cuneocerebellar, ventral spinocerebellar, rostral spincocerebellar, olivocerebellar.
are tracts of the cerebellum ipsilateral (same side)? YES!!
function of dorsal spinocerebellar tract temp, proprioception (input of sensation into our joints), touch of legs and lower body
function of cuneocerebellar tract temp, proprioception, touch of arms and upper trunk of body
function of ventral spinocerebellar tract proprioception and pain from legs and lower body
function of rostral spinocerebellar tract proprioception and pain from arms and upper trunk
function of olivocerebellar tract allows 2 hemispheres of cerebellum to communicate with one another
where do all the cranial nerves arise from? brainstem
brainstem function respiration and cardiac function
another definition of brainstem intermediate stage of organization btwn the simple reflexes seen at the level of the spinal cord and helps move into extremely complex responses of cerebral cortex
medulla oblongata (1 of 3 parts of brainstem) where the spinal cord merges into the brain
what is a major component of the medulla? pyramidal decussation
pyramidal decussation of the medulla where fibers cross from one side to another. Left side of the cerebrum crosses to right side of the body and vice versa.
pons (1 of 3 parts of the brainstem) the bridge that connects medulla, midbrain, and cerebellum
the pons are made of which 2 components? superior cerebellar peduncles and middle cerebellar peduncles
superior cerebellar peduncles 1 of 2 parts of the pons (which is 1 of 3 parts of the brainstem). pathways for communication within the cerebellum
middle cerebellar peduncles 1 of 2 parts of the pons (which is 1 of 3 parts of the brainstem). pathways for communication within cerebellum
peduncles collection of nerve fibers connecting between diff regions in CNS
main feature of midbrain cerebral penduncles
midbrain connects the forebrain and cerebrum and the high brain (which consists of the cerebellum). aids in regulating and coordinating movements
cerebral penduncles main feature of the midbrain (which is 1 of 3 components of the brainstem). contains communicating pathways leading to and from the cerebellum.
where do all motor fibers pass through? cerebral peduncles of the midbrain
affects to _____ would effect entire functions of the body cerebral peduncles of the midbrain
what are the 3 different classifications of cranial nerves general or special/somatic or visceral/ afferent, efferent, or mixed
cranial nerve 1 olfactory
olfactory nerve's number, function and type CN 1, function: smell. type: sensory
cranial nerve 2 optic
optic nerve's number, function, and type CN 2. function: visual info. type: sensory
cranial nerve 3 oculomotor
oculomotor nerve's number, function, and type CN 3. function: innervate eye movmements (pupil size, lens shape). type: motor
cranial nerve 4 trochlear
trochlear nerve's number, function, and type CN 4. function: same as CN 3 plus visual tracking (downward and outward). type: motor
cranial nerve 5 trigeminal
Created by: ariellelingchen



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