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Endocrine System C

Mblex Study Guide

Ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream Endocrine Glands
Gland that secretes hormones through ducts directly into specific areas. Exocrine Glands
The amount of time required for half of a hormone to be eliminated from the bloodstream Half-Life
The excessive release of a hormone Hypersecretion
The insufficient release of a hormone Hyposecretion
A control mechanism that provides a stimulus to decrease a function; such as a fire alarm, which causes a series of reactions that work to reduce the fire Negative Feedback System
Hormones produced by the endocrine glands that affect other endocrine glands. Tropic (trophic) hormones
The system of the body involved primarily with physiological function (defenses against stressors, maintenance of electrolytes, water & nutrient balance of the blood, and regulation of cellular metabolism and energy balance Endocrine System
What are the endocrine glands of the body? Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, thymus glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes
What are hormones derived from? Amino acids & steroids
Where is the Pituitary Gland located? In the head about eye level and hang down from the hypothalamus and sits in the sella turcica
A gland of the Endocrine system that secretes hormones that regulate growth, fluid balance, lactation, and childbirth Pituitary Gland
An Anterior Pit. Hormone that stimulates most body cells to increase in size and divide with the major target organs being the bones and muscles. Also releases stored fat and raises blood glucose to provide us with energy. Released during exercise. Growth Hormone or Somatotropin
Ant. Pituitary Hormone that promotes & maintains the growth & development of the thyroid gland & controls the release of thyroid hormones in a negative feedback system. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Ant. Pituitary Hormone that promotes & maintains normal growth & development of the adrenal cortex by stimulating the release of glucocorticoids & androgens (testosterone). Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Ant. Pituitary Hormone that stimulates the growth & maturation of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs, also stimulates the secretion of estrogen, & sperm production in the male. Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Ant. Pituitary Hormone that causes ovulation, stimulates progesterone production in the ovaries & the production & secretion of testosterone in the testes. Lutenizing Hormone
Ant Pituitary Hormone that plays a part in breast development in women & initiates milk production when stimulated by the CNS. Also involved in immune function Prolactin
Ant. Pituitary Hormone that acts on the pigment cells in the skin and the adrenal glands. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
Post. Pituitary Hormone that stimulates smooth muscle contraction especially in the uterus, stimulates the milk letdown response. Oxytocin
Post. Pituitary Hormone aka vasopressin that stimulates the kidneys to remove water from urine and release it into the bloodstream. Antidiuretic Hormone
Where is the thyroid gland located? It lies on the trachea below the thyroid cartilage.
A gland of the Endocrine System that regulates metabolism in the body by maintaining an adequate amt. of oxygen consumption at the cellular level Thyroid gland
Hormone secreted by the Thyroid gland that inhibits bone reabsorption by limiting the rate at which bone tissue releases calcium to plasma. Calcitonin
Pathological condition of the endocrine system caused by autoimmune dysfuction, symptoms include excessive sweating, weight loss, fatigue, tachycardia, nervousness, warm moist skin, hand tremors & hyperactivity. Hyperthyroidism
A pathological condition which is considered another form of hyperthyroidism that includes an enlarged thyroid gland and abnormal eyeball protrusion. Graves Diseases
A pathological condition of the endocrine system caused by autoimmune dysfunction & a decrease in thyroid-releasing hormone. Symptoms include weakness, fatigue, constipation, hoarseness, bradycardia, skin dryness, weight gain, slowed mental function. Hypothyroidism
A pathological condition that occurs during gestation or infancy due to an absence of thyroid hormones and can result in mental retardation or dwarfism Cretinism
The most severe form of Hypothyroidism causing many of the main symptoms of the disease along with swelling of the face, hands & feet Myxedema
Where are the Parathyroid Glands located? On the posterior surface of the thyroid lobes.
What gland of the Endocrine system causes the release of calcium from bone, & absorbs more calcium from the GI tract, resulting in an increase in blood levels of calcium & phosphorus Parathyroid Glands
Where is the pancreas located? Behind the stomach
A gland of the endocrine system that aids in digestion and produces hormones. The Pancreas
An island of cells within the pancreas that produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. Islets of Langerhans
Which hormone secreted by the Islets of Langerhans is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels by transporting glucose into cells to be used for energy? Insulin
Which hormone secreted by the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas is responsible for increasing blood glucose levels? Glucagon
A pathological condition of the Endocrine system that results from the deficient production of glucagon by the pancreas? Hypoglycemia
Pathological condition that results from the pancreas not producing enough insulin or totally stopping insulin production. Symptoms include dehydration, increased thirst, urination & appetite. Diabetes Mellitus
An insulin dependent pathological condition. Type 1 Diabetes
A non-insulin dependent pathological condition. Type 2 Diabetes
Where are the adrenal glands? On top of each of our kidneys
Which part of the Adrenal gland secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine which work together with the Sympathetic Nervous System? Adrenal Medulla
Which part of the Adrenal gland secretes cortisol, aldosterone & gonadocorticoids and are involved in the metabolism of most body cells. Adrenal Cortex
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that synthesizes certain amino acids into glucose causing a rise in blood sugar. Also converts starches into glycogen in the liver if the body does not acquire enough carbs to use. Cortisol
Hormone secreted by the Adrenal Cortex that causes the kidneys to reabsorb more sodium and water and excrete more potassium and hydrogen. Aldosterone
Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that are similar male & female sex steroids as the ones produced by the ovaries & testes.Significant in the fetus during early puberty. Gonadocorticoids
Path. Cond. where corticosteroid levels in blood & urine are elevated, usually caused by taking large doses of corticosteroid drugs for long periods. Symptoms include edema, hyperglycemia, acne, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, suppressed immunity Cushing's Syndrome/Disease
Where is the Pineal Gland located? Inside the brain within the diencephalon & surrounded by pia mater
Which gland of the endocrine system secretes melatonin, serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, & histamine, & regulates the rhythmic patterns of the body? Pineal Gland
Where is the thymus located? Deep to the sternum and mediastinum of the thorax and between the lungs at the level of the 4th & 5th thoracic vertebra
Which gland of the endocrine system is considered the master gland of the immune system and is considered part of the lymphatic system? Thymus
Created by: CEckhoff



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