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Nervous System & CNS

Mblex Study Guide

The brain and spinal cord and their coverings Central Nervous System
Nerve cells found in the CNS that conduct impulses and receive and transmit electrical signals from and to muscles, glands and others of it's type Neurons
What are the two types of cells found in the CNS? Neurons and Neuroglia
Cells found in the CNS that support and protect neurons as it holds them together, and that also support tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in the brain Neuroglia
The largest and most complex unit of the nervous system which is responsible for perception, sensation, emotion, intellect, and action Brain
What do nerve cells consist of? Cell body,and it's nerve fibers (axons and dendrites)
What does the cell body contain? A nucleus and it's organelles
A nerve fiber that looks like little hairs, are an extension of the cytoplasm of the cell, and their job is to carry signals to the cell body. Dendrites
Nerve fiber, it's an elongated projection that carries signals away from the cell body, may have branches known as collaterals that allow communication among neurons. Axons
Found in the neuroglia,A white fatty, insulation substance formed by Schwann cells that surrounds some axons. Also produced in the CNS by oligodendrocytes. Myelin
A specialized cell that forms Myelin. Schwann Cell
The outer cell membrane of a Schwann cell that is essential in the regeneration of injured axons. Neurilemma
Small gaps between segments of the myelin sheath which help speed the nerve impulses. Nodes of Ranvier
A type of neuron that conducts sensory signals to the CNS Sensory neuron
A type of neuron that conducts motor signals away from the CNS Motor Neuron
When a stimulus such as a pressure, light, temperature or chemical change results in a brief change in the charge of one segment of a neuron. Depolarization
The change in a segment of a cell membrane when the outside segment becomes negatively charged as it depolarizes and the inside becomes positively charged. Action Potential
When a neuron is at rest how are the inside and outside charged? The inside is negatively charged, and the outside it positively charged.
The space of junction between two neurons or a neuron and an effector organ Synapse
Chemical compounds that generate action potentials when released into the synapses from presynaptic clefts and regulate many of the body's actions and senses. Neurotransmitters
A neurotransmitter/hormone that stimulates the skeletal muscles and some organs and acts primarily on the parasympathetic ns. Is involved in memory. Acetylcholine
A N.T./hormone that is involved in sleep, motor function, mood & pleasure and include two types (Epinephrine & Norepinephrine Catacholamines
A Catacholamine that can excite or inhibit, is involved in the flight or fight response, such as dilation of blood vessels to the skeletal muscles and is classified as a hormone when secreted by the adrenal gland Epinephrine
A Catacholamine that can excite or inhibit, found in the Hypothalalmus & limbic system, and in the sympathetic part of the ANS. Causes constriction of blood vessels, is a "feel good" NT & involved in emotional responses. Norepinephrine
A NT, generally excitatory, found in the brain & ANS. A feel-good NT, involved in emotions and mood & is involved in the regulation of motor control and executive functioning of the brain. Dopamine
A NT, A stimulant, released by mast cells as part of the inflammatory process. Also found in the hypothalamus, Regulates body temperature & water balance, and plays a part in emotions. Stimulates pain receptors to sensitize against further stimulation. Histamine
A NT, an inhibitor of the CNS, synthesized into melatonin and affects biologic cycles, sleep & moods. Serotonin
A NT, inhibitory, found in the brain, the most common inhibitory NT in the brain. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
A NT, excitatory, found in the CNS, thought to be responsible for as much as 75% of the excitatory signals in the brain. Glutamate (Glutamic Acid)
NT, found in the brain, retina, & GI tract, the function is unclear and may be related to feeding behavior, a gut-brain peptide. Cholecystokinin
NT's, Endogenous morphines that block the brain from feeling pain, inhibitory, found in several organs of the CNS, retina, & Intestinal tract. Morphine & heroin mimic their effects. Endorphins & Enkephalins
A NT, inhibits the release of growth hormone and is a gut-brain peptide Somatostatin
A NT, excitatory, found in the brain & spinal cord, sensory pathways, and GI tract. Transmits Pain information. Substance P
A NT, found in the brain, some ANS and & sensory fibers, retina & the GI tract, it's function is unclear Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
What are the three divisions of the brain? The Cerebrum, Cerebellum & Brainstem(diencephalon)
The largest portion of the brain, aka the "forebrain", receives sensory information, interprets it, associates it with memories and past experiences, & then transmits the most appropriate motor impulse in response to the input. Also involved in emotions. Cerebrum
The folds found in the Cerebral Cortex that increase the area available to the cortex. Convolutions or gyri
Creases that separate the Convolutions(gyri) of the Cerebral Cortex. Sulci or fissures
The central sulcus that separates the frontal and parietal lobes of the Cerebrum. Fissure of Rolando
The lateral fissure of the Cerebrum that lies above the temporal lobe and below the frontal and parietal lobe. The fissure of Sylvius
The fifth lobe of the Cerebrum that lies deep in the lateral fissure Insula
What do the left and right hemispheres of the Cerebrum oversee? Motor control
A structure located underneath the gray matter that connects the left and right hemispheres. Corpus Collosum
Unmyelinated nervous tissue, particularly that found in the central nervous system. Gray Matter
Myelinated nerve fibers, particularly those found in the brain and spinal tissue. White Matter
Small collections of gray matter that assist in coordination Basal Ganglia
What does the frontal lobe of the brain control? Personality, Behavior, Emotion & Intellectual function
What does the Broca's area of the brain control? Motor Speech
What does the Parietal Lobe control? Sensation
What does the Occipital Lobe control? Vision
What does the gnostic area of the brain do? Stores complex memory patterns
What is the Gustatory area of the brain responsible for? Taste
What is the Wernicke's area of the brain responsible for? Language & Comprehension
What is Temporal Lobe responsible for? Hearing & Smell
What is the Insula of the brain responsible for? Visceral effects
The 2nd largest part of the brain, maintains balance and posture. Cerebellum
A clear, colorless fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord, cushioning and protecting the structures & maintaining proper PH balance Cerebrospinal Fluid
The portion of the nervous system that exits the skull & extends into the vertebral column. It's functions are conduct nerve impulses and to be a center for spinal reflexes Spinal Cord
The two roots that attach a spinal nerve to the spinal cord. Dorsal and Ventral Roots
Tracts that carry sensory information to the brain Ascending tracts
Tracts that carry motor information from the brain to the spinal cord. Descending Tracts
A progressive disease that begins in the CNS & involves the degeneration of motor neurons and the subsequent atrophy of voluntary muscles. AKA Lou Gehrig's disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
A continuous seizure Epilepticus
A chronic tremor that does not proceed from any other pathologic condition. Essential Tremor
Paralysis of a single limb or a single group of muscles Monoplegia
Paralysis or loss of mvmt of the lower portion of the body and of both legs. Paraplegia
Paralysis or loss of mvmt of all four limbs Quadraplegia
Collections of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord that have a common function Tracts
a pathologic condition that covers disorders such as aneurysms, & hemmoraghes that damage brain tissue Cerebrovascular Accident or stroke
Parietal motor deficit on one side of the body Hemiparesis
Pathologic condition: a gradual buildup of arteriosclerotic lesions ( thickened, hardened areas of reduced elasticity) in the arteries of the neck and brain. Cerbrovascular Disease
A weakening or bulging of an artery Aneurysm
Brain trauma that may be mild, moderate or severe. Concussion
Sudden involuntary muscle contractions. Seizures
A pathologic condition which results from the degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, affects person's normal voluntary mvmts and replaces them with dance like motions. Chorea
Created by: CEckhoff



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