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Anatomy for Assessme

Anatomy and movement science

Describe the physiology and structure of BONE calcified connective tissue consisting of osteocytes (bone cells) in a matrix of ground substance and collagen fibers.
Describe LONG BONES and give examples longer than they are side, include clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, phalanges
Describe SHORT BONES are found in the wrist and ankle and are shaped like cuboids
Give examples of FLAT BONES ribs, sternum, scapulae, bones in the vault of the head
Describe IRREGULAR BONES and give examples Bones of mixed shapes, such as bones of skull, vertebra and coxal bones (pelvis, w/o the sacrum & coccyx)
What are SESAMOID BONES? develop in certain tendons and work to reduce friction on the tendon, thus protecting from excessive wear. Example: the sesamoid bones of first metatarsal are imbedded in tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis.
What are OSTEOKINEMATICS? Voluntary movements such as flexion, abduction, rotation.
What is a COMPONENT MOTION? accompany active motion, but not voluntary (i.e. upward rotation of the scapula, clavicular rotation that occurs with shoulder flexion, rotation of the fibula that occurs with ankle motion.)
What is ARTHROKINEMATICS? "joint play" between joint surfaces as well as distendibility ("give") in a joint capsule (distraction, sliding, compression, rolling, spinning of joint surfaces).
What is another name for a MOVEABLE JOINT? Synovial/Diarthroidal (one articulation permitting free motion in a joint, as that of the shoulder or hip)
What are NON-MOVEABLE JOINTS? joined by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage (ex: sutures of the skull)
What is a SYNOVIAL JOINT? freely moveable joint containing a fluid-filled cavity between the bones.
What is a BALL AND SOCKET JOINT? One bone has a ball, the other has a "cave" for the ball. Movement in all directions. EX = shoulder or hip.
What is a HINGE JOINT? One convex surface meets a concave surface. Movement in one plane. Elbow or knee.
What is a PIVOT JOINT? one bone fits into a ring structure on another. Rotational movement. Where the atlas (C1) meets the axis (C2).
What is a SLIDING/GLIDING JOINT? both surfaces are essentially flat. Limited movement. Rib/vertebrae or scapula/clavicle.
What is a CONDYLOID JOINT? oval shaped process of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another. Movement in two planes. (flexion/extension & abduction/adduction). Wrist or Atlas/occiput
What is a SADDLE JOINT? both surfaces are saddle shaped. Movement in two planes. Thumb joint.
Which bones make up the AXIAL SKELETON? 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebra Sacrum - five fused bones on posterior of pelvis Coccyx - three to five fused bones (tailbone) Sternum - where rib cage joins clavical Ribcage - home of diaphram and scapulae sit on poster
What is the APPENDICULAR SKELETON? Functionally it is involved in locomotion (Lower limbs) of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment (Upper limbs).
What is the CLAVICLE and what is its function? aka the collar bone; connects the scapula to the sternum; helps to hold shoulder in place during arm movement; two joints = sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular
Describe these parts of the SCAPULA: Subscapular fossa Spine Acromion process Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Fossa - anterior surface; serratus ant & attachment for subscapularis Spine - prominent edge of posterior Acromion - lateral aspect of spine of scap; attachment for deltoid & traps Coracoid - below the clavicle, attachment for tendons & ligaments
What is the Glenoid cavity? oval hole on lateral scapula forming the glenohumeral joint.
Describe the FEUMUR longest/heaviest bone in body. Smooth rounded head articulates w acetabulum of the coxal bone to form hip joint
What is the GREATER TROCANTER? upper, lateral process of the femur; attachment for gluteus medius, gluteus maximus and lateral rotation of hip
What is the LESSER TROCANTER? lower, medial process of the femur
Describe the PATELLA fits into groove betweenthe two condyles of the femur; Patellofemoral joint - patella meets w femur Tibiofemoral joint - patella meets w tibia Misalignment can cause chondromalacia (soft/split posterior of patella)
What is the TIBIA? Larger of two lower leg bones on medial side; proximal end articulates w femur
What is the FIBULA? Thin, twisted bone on lateral side; articulates with tibia but not femur; makes the rounded bump of the ankle.
How many bones make up the FOOT? 26 bones
Which bones make up the ANKLE? 7 tarsal bones
What is the TALUS? articulates with the tibia and fibula
What is the CALCANEUS? heel bone; distributes weight of body through the foot
What are the METATARSALS? #1 = Big toe; #5 = pinky toe
What are the PEDAL PHALANGES? make up the toes - two in big toe, three in others
What is the HUMERUS? long bone of the upper arm; head is the ball of shoulder's ball and socket
What is the RADIUS? one of two main forearm bones, which rotates around the ulna
What is the ULNA? the fixed bone of the two main forearm bones
How many bones make up the HAND? 27 bones
What bones make up the wrist? 8 Carpal bones
What bones make up the palm of the hand? 5 metacarpals
What bones make up the fingers? 14 phalanges; two in thumb, three in others
What are the bony landmarks of the PELVIC GIRDLE? Pelvis - sacrum, ilium, ischium, pubis, coccyx ASIS PSIS Iliac crest - upward flaring ridge of hip Ischial tuberosities - sits bonex Pubic symphysis - "pubic bone"
What is the SPINAL COLUMN? strong, flexible rod supporting the trunk, extending from skull to pelvis
What are the vertebral bodies? round, flattened surface with interfaces w intervertebral discs
What are the POSTERIOR SPINOUS PROCESSES? spiny portion that you feel along the middle of your back, sites for muscular attachments
What are the TRANSVERSE SPINOUS PROCESSES? bone that sticks out from sides of vertebral body; sites of muscular attachments
Where is the SACRUM? back of the pelvic ring
What is the COCCYX? "tail bone"
What are CONDYLES? bony "bumps" on medial and lateral sides of femur that articulate w lower leg
What is HYALIN CARTILAGE? provides flexible support & unites synchondroses or primary cartilaginous joints such as the union of manubrium and sternum
What is FIBROCARTILAGE? joins symphysis or secondary cartilaginous joints by a plate such as the union of the bodies of the vertebrae.
What are SYNOVIAL TENDON SHEATHS? tubular sacs wrapped around the tendons which occur where tendons pass under ligaments, retinacula, facilitating movement by limiting friction.
What are BURSA? flattened sac of synovial membrane which facilitates movement by limiting friction.
What are LIGAMENTS? dense bundles of parallel collagen fibers that hold two bones together, providing strength & stability to the joint
What are TENDONS? the extension of a muscle into a long fibrous cord that blends into the periosteum of a bone - connects muscle to bone.
What is SUPERFICIAL FASCIA? loose connective tissue between the dermis and the deep fascia
What is DEEP FASCIA? sheet of fibrous tissue that invests the muscles and helps to support them by serving as an elastic sheath providing origins and insertions for the muscles and fibrous sheaths or tendons.
What are the MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION? Diaphram Intercostals Scalenae Levator costarum Transversus Abdominus Pelvic floor
Describe the DIAPHRAGM floor of the thorax, primary muscle of respiration which elevates lower ribs increasing width of rib cage, elevates upper ribs increasing depth of rib cage
Describe INTERCOSTALS muscles between adjacent ribs which contract during deep, forced respiration. Help maintain correct shape of rib cage.
Describe SCALANAE Insert proximally on transverse process of lower five cervicals and distally on upper surface of primary two ribs. Active during quiet respiration. Lift sternum and primary two ribs in "pump handle" action
Describe LEVATOR COSTARUM runs from thoracic vertebrae to the back of a rib one or two notches below. Assists in rotation of spine and elevation of ribs
Describe TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINUS Deepest ab, reduces diameter of abdomen, increases lordosis, supports internal organs, is stabilizer with side-bending.
What muscles make up the "PELVIC FLOOR"? Ischiococcygeus and the pubococcygeus, aka "Kegel muscles"
What muscles are "SPINE EXTENSORS"? Erector spina, Quadratus Lumborum, Multifidi, Trapezius, Rhomboids
Describe ERECTOR SPINAE muscles iliocostalis (lateral), longissimus (middle), spinalis (medial) running head to bottom of ribcage = extension, side-bending, rotation
Describe QUADRATUS LUMBORUM muscles runs from back of iliac crest to bottom of rib and spinal processes along the way = side-bending of lumbar spine & elevation of pelivs
Describe MULITFIDI muscles multisegmental deep spinal muscles, completing "corset" begun by Transverse Abdominus
Describe "TRAPEZIUS" muscles runs from occiput through T12 to superior scapula and clavicle = extension, side-bending, rotation of neck
Describe RHOMBOIDS run from back of C7 thru T5 to medial scapula = lateral shift of vertebrae, side-bend or rotation of neck; holds scapula to ribcage
What four muscles make up the SPINE FLEXORS? Rectus Abdominus, External Obliques, Internal Obliques, Transversus Abdominus
Describe RECTUS ABDOMINUS muscle crest of pubic symphysis to xyphoid process and cartilage of ribs 5 to 7 = compression of abdomen and spinal flexion
Describe EXTERNAL OBLIQUES front of ribs 5 - 12 to linea alba and inguinal ligament = flexion, compression of abdomen, unilateral side-bend, contralateral rotation
Describe INTERNAL OBLIQUES Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia to lower ribs = compression of abdomen, flexion, ipsilateral side-bend, rotation
What are the three muscles of the NECK? Suboccipital, Longus colli, Sternocleidomastoid
Describe the SUBOCCIPITAL MUSCLES muscles that attach to the external surface of the occiput anteriorly and posteriorly
Describe the LONGUS COLLI muscle deep 3part muscle = flexion of head, straighten cervical spine, sids-bend, rotation
Describe STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID muscle largest anterior neck muscle, runs bilaterally from sternum/clavicle to mastoid process = elevation of sternum, side-bend, rotation or flexion of head
What are the muscles of the SHOULDER? Serratus anterior, Trapezius, Pectoralis Major and Minor, Rhomboids, Deltoid, Levator scapula, Latissimus Forsi, Corocobrachialis, Rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis)
What movements are produced by the SERRATUS ANTERIOR? scapular depression, abduction, upward rotation
What movements are produced by the TRAPEZIUS? scapular elevation, adduction, upward rotation. Diamond shaped, from occipital bones and primary 18 vertebrae to acromion process and spine of scapulae
What movements are produced by the PECTORALIS MAJOR AND MINOR? shoulder flexion, adduction, internal rotation
What movements are produced by the RHOMBOIDS? scapular elevation, adduction, downward rotation
What movements are produced by the Deltoids? shoulder flexion, and internal rotation (anterior), extension and external rotation, abduction (medial)
What movements are produced by the LEVATOR SCAPULAE? scapular elevation, downward rotation
What movements are produced by the LATISSIMUS DORSI? shoulder extension, adduction, internal rotation
What movements are produced by the OCRACOBRACHIALIS? flexion and adduction
Whate movements are produced by the ROTATOR CUFF? four muscles that combine to pull the head of the humerus medially, stabilizing the joint during movement. Suprasinatus = abduction, Infraspinatus = external rotation, Teres Minor = extension, adduction, rotation, Subscapulars = internal rotation
What are the muscles of the upper arm? Biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachialis
What movements are produced by the biceps brachii? primary arm flexor
What movements are produced by the triceps bracii? primary arm extensor
What movements are produced by the brachialis? elbow flexor
What are the muscles of the hand? Extensor carpi radialis, Flexor digitorum, extensor digitorum, flexor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicus longus
What movement is produced by the Extensor carpi radialis? extends and adducts the wrist
What movement is produced by the Flexor Digitorum? from anterior/medial ulna, splits into four tendons, running through carpal tunnel to distal phalanges of fingers, producing flexion of all finger joings
What movement is produced by the Extensor digitorum? from elbow, splits into four tendons, each splitting into three bands, to the posterior second and first knuckles, producing extension of all finger joints
What movement is produced by the flexor pollicis longus? from radius to thumb, bends thumb inward toward palm
What movement is produced by abductor pollicus longus? from ulna to radius to lateral base of thumb, brings entire thumb toward palm
What movement is produced by extensor pollicis brevis? from posterior radius to first and second knuckles of thumb, causing thumb extension.
What are the HIP FLEXORS? Psoas major, Iliacus, Tensor Fascia Latae, Ilitotbial band, Sartorius, Rectus Femoris
Where is the PSOAS MAJOR? large, thick muscle deep in abdomen; from vertebral bodies and discs at T12-L5 to inguinal ligament and anterior part of hip joint capsule - major hip flexor
Describe the ILIACUS primarily a hip flexor and stabilizer; poor flexibility may increase lumbar lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt and hip-flexed posture
Describe the TENSOR FACIA LATAE from anterior iliac crest to the IT band, producing abduction, flexion and medial rotation of thigh
Describe ILIOTIBIAL BAND from iliac crest to superolateral tibia and head of fibula = flex the hip, medially rotate and abduct the hip
Describe the SARTORIUS longest muscle of the body, running from ASIS to superomedial tibia, producing flexion, lateral rotation and abduction of femur
Describe RECTUS FEMORIS 2-joint muscle, crossing hip and knee = flex the hip and extend the knee
Which muscles are the HIP EXTENSORS? Gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semimembranosis, semitendonosis
Which muscles are the LATERAL HIP ROTATORS? Piriformis, Obturator internus, obturator externus, Gemellus inferior, gemeulls superior, quadratus femoris
Which muscles are the MEDIAL HIP ROTATORS? Gluteus minimus, gluteus medius (anterior fibers), tensor facia latae, Gracilis
Which muscles are the HIP ADDUCTORS? Adductor Magnus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, pectineus, gracilis
Which muscles are the HIP ABDUCTORS? Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor facia latae, Sartorius
Which muscles are the KNEE EXTENSORS? Quadriceps: Rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis
Which muscles are the KNEE FLEXORS? Biceps femoris, semimembranosis, semitendonosis, politeus, plantaris, gracilis
Describe the GRASTROCNEMIUS located on back of lower leg, extend foot, inserts on heel by Achilles tendon
Describe the SOLEUS located on back of lower leg, extend foot, inserts on heel by Achilles tendon
Describe the ANTERIOR TIBIALIS located on front of lower leg, flexes foot
Describe the PERONEUS BREVIS located on lateral lower leg, everts foot
Describe the PERONEUS LONGUS located on lateral lower leg, everts foot
Describe the FLEXOR HALLUCIS LONGUS from posterioinferior fibula under foot to last joint of thumb toe, pointing of foot/toes and ankle inversion
Describe the FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS from posteromedial tibia under foot to last joints of 4 toes, pointing of foot and toes
Describe the TIBIALIS POSTERIOR deepest of calf muscles producing plantar flexion and inversion, support of arches, works with peroneus longus forming sling for mid-foot.
What is the function of the INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE FOOT? provide support to arches during gait, and stability in standing.