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A&P 2 EXAM 1

Blood and The Heart

Circulates blood between cells and the heart; includes elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, venues, and veins. Blood vessels
What are the three main functions of blood? Distribution, regulation, and protection
List the characteristics of blood. -sticky, opaque -salty -color varies from scarlet to darker red -3-5 times thicker than water -pH range of 7.35-7.45 -temperature of 38 degrees C
What is the term used to describe the portion of blood that is composed of RBC (red blood cells)? Hematocrit
What percentage of blood is made up of plasma vs. formed elements? Plasma is 55% of whole blood; formed elements are 45% of whole blood.
What is the term used to describe the intercellular material of blood? AKA the fluid portion of blood. Plasma
What is the normal pH of blood? 7.35-7.45
Of the plasma proteins, which is the most abundant? Albumin
What plasma protein forms fibrin? Fibrinogen
Define 'gammaglobin'. Antibody fraction of the plasma.
What organ produces the clotting proteins prothrombin and fibrinogen? The liver.
What are the three types of formed elements in the blood? Erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), and thrombocytes (platelets).
What is the protein that maintains the biconcave shape of RBC's? Spectrin.
How many nuclei do RBC's have? 0
How many molecules of oxygen can hemoglobin transport? 4
Define hematopoiesis. Blood cell formation
A pluripotent stem cell present in bone marrow that can differentiate into any of the formed elements Hemocytoblast
What happens to cell size during erythropoiesis? Gets smaller
What happens to a cell color during erythropoiesis? Pink-red color
What happens to organelles during erythropoiesis? They are ejected/expelled.
Which class of leukocyte contains granules that react specifically with Wright's stain? Granulocytes
Which class of leukocyte lack visible cytoplasmic granules? Agranulocyte.
The production of leukocytes is stimulated/regulated by..... Interleukins and colony stimulation factors.
Add additional 1/3 of platelets are stored in what organ? Spleen
Define 'Hemostasis' Stoppage of bleeding.
What are the three mechanisms of hemostasis? Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation.
Primary hemostasis is composed of what two steps? Vascular spasm and platelet plug formation.
Secondary hemostasis is composed of which step? Coagulation
This pathway of coagulation is faster than the other. Extrinsic pathway.
This pathway of coagulation has all the necessary factors it needs within the blood. Intrinsic pathway.
What is the difference between serum and plasma? Plasma: inclusive of all clotting proteins. Serum: no clotting proteins. Serum=Plasma-clotting proteins.
A glycoprotein ANTIGEN found on the RBC surface. Agglutinogen
A gylcoprotein ANTIBODY produced by plasma cells and found in body fluids. Agglutinin
A clumping reaction that occurs when agglutinogens are linked to agglutins Agglutination
What is the most common blood type? O
What is the least common blood type? AB
If you have type O blood, what blood groups can receive your blood? A, B, AB, O
If you have AB blood, what blood group can receive your blood? AB
The relaxation phase when pressure in the heart is reduced. Diastole
The contraction phase when pressure in the heart is increased. Systole
Which part of the heart lies between T5 and T8? Base
What part of the heart lies on the left fifth intercostal space? Apex
Where is the point of maximal intensity (PMI) located? Left fifth intercostal space
A double walled sac that surrounds the heart. Pericardium
What is the most outer layer of pericardium? Fibrous pericardium.
The serous pericardium has how many layers? 2
This layer of the heart wallis innervated by the vagus nerve and is the main layer responsible for cardiac contractions. Myocarduim
The most inner layer of the heart wall. Endocardium
Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and cornoary sinus and blood vessels attached to what chamber of the heart? Right atrium
The pulmonary trunk is separated from the right ventricle by what valve? Pulmonary semilunar valve.
What are the small appendages on the atrial walls that project outwards? Auricle
What are the names of the two atrioventricular valves? Tricuspid and bicuspid
What are the names of the semilunar valves? Aortic and pulmonary
Which valve prevents blood from back-flowing into the left ventricle? Aortic semilunar valve
Which valve prevents blood from back-flowing into the right atrium? Tricuspid valve
Name the vessel that carries newly oxygenated blood from the lungs back into the left atrium. Pulmonary veins
What is the name of the biggest artery in your body? Aorta
Pulmonary circuit consists of the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the ______. Lungs
Systemic circuit consists of the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the _____. Body systems
The right side of the heart always has what type of blood in its chambers? Deoxygenated
The left side of the heart always has what type of blood in its chambers? Oxygenated
Created by: 100000072124943



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