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Does H+ ever exist on its own in water? NO --> always as hydronium
What is another name for hydration? solvation
How to calculate normality? Molarity of solution * number of H
molarity (M) mol solute / L of solution
molality (m) mol solute / kg of solvent
Calculate parts per million? X mg / kg = X mg / L
Ksp: MX2 Ksp = [M][2X]^2
What does solubility = for MX2? value of M
Common ion effect Less will dissolve in a solution where the species already exists
Acids are more soluble in _____. Bases are more soluble in ____. bases / acids
Complex ion metal cation bound to a Lewis base (charged or uncharged)
When a complex ion like M-Cl is formed, will more or less of AgCl dissolve? More --> Cl is taken out of solution, so more of AgCl should dissolve
Are complex ions soluble in water? YES --> charged species
lattice energy interionic forces in crystal
solvation energy strength of attraction btwn solvent and dissociated ions
Which part dissolves fastest? corners followed by edges and faces
What is a saturated solution? rate of dissociation = rate of precipitation
Supersaturated solution? solution is a suspension created at high temperature
An anion has more ___ than ____. A cation has more ____ than ____. -electrons / protons -protons / electrons
How to use spectroscopy to determine amount of dissolved salt? amount of absorbed light at a fixed wavelength depends on conc. of ions
Which cpds precipitate first? cpds with smallest value for x (molar solubility)
Ion exchange column precipitate out ion that forms less soluble salt and release more soluble ion into solution to replace it
What is a chelating agent? substance whose molecules form several bonds to a single metal ion
How to form a coordinate covalent bond? lewis base donates a pair of electrons to lewis acid
Do ionic / covalent solutions conduct electricity? ionic
What color solution does nickel create and why? green --> unfilled d-orbitals
What does Ksp describe? how much will dissolve in solution
How is a precipitate formed in relation to Ksp? exceed Ksp and form a precipitate
What is a metathesis reaction? double dispalcement
When you swallow something toxic, do you want it to be more or less soluble? less soluble
Does a smaller Ksp imply higher or lower solubility of cpd in water? lower solubility --> lower conc. of cation and anion in aq. solution
Polar substances dissolve in ____ solvents. polar solvents
salt made of +1 / -1 are soluble
nitrate (NO3-) salts are soluble
Sulfate (SO4 2-) with +1 cations are soluble (excludes transition metals)
Most salts with -2 or -3 anions are insoluble in water, excluding sulfate salts
Most oxide (O2-) and hydroxide (OH-) salts are only slightly water-soluble
KOH and NaOH are prett soluble
In ionic structures, are electrons shared? NO --> transferred btwn atoms -cation = deficiency , anion = abundance of electrons
salt nomenclature cation + anion -ium + -ide
lower solubility means? less dissolution in solution --> less ions
Magnesium hydroxide is most soluble in acid / base? acid
basic salts are most soluble in acid / base acid
NH4+ is acidic / basic acidic
What does a precipitate do to an ion? takes it out of solution
Created by: 507935299