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Stack #189911

prokaryotes have/lack mesosome have
prokaryotes have/lack PM have
prokaryotes have/lack mitochondria lack
prokaryotes have/lack lysosome lack
prokaryotes have/lack ER lack
prokaryotes have/lack golgi apparatus lack
prokaryotes have/lack nucleus lack
prokaryotes have/lack embedded cholesterol in lipid bilayer lack
prokaryotes have/lack histone lack
prokaryotes have/lack ETC have (special ETC not in mitochondria)
prokaryotes have/lack ribosome have
two types of angiosperm monocot(narrow leaf), dicot(broad leaf)
cambrium is source of 2nd growth of plants which develops into phloem and xylem.
phloem is transports nutrients down stem
xylem is transports water up stem
vascular tissue transporting nutrients down stem phloem
vascular tissue transporting water up stem xylem
plants lacking vascular tissues non-trachephyte
non-trachephyte is plants lacking vascular tissues
stomata control gas exchange by opening/closing
control gas exchange by opening/closing stomata
stroma fluid inner membrane of chloroplast
fluid inner membrane of chloroplast stroma
thylakoid photosynthetic pigment in chloroplast
photosynthetic pigment in chloroplast thylakoid
meristem undifferentiated cells in plants
undifferentiated cells in plants meristem
apical meristem undifferentiated cells that eventually develop into branches and flowers
undifferentiated cells that eventually develop into branches and flowers apical meristems
NT consists of sugar + phosphate + nitrogenous base
nucleoside consists of sugar + nitrogenous base
lyase breaks down C-C, C-O, C-N
when the sigmoidal curve for Hb is shifted to right the affinity of O2 is decreased/increased decreased, hence releasing O2
effect of H+ on Hb sigmoidal curve shifts right`
Red marrow form RBC, leukocyte, thrombocyte
what part of a bone forms RBC, leukocyte, thrombocyte Red marrow
Yellow marrow stores fat
what part of a bone stores fat yellow marrow`
under what condition is yellow marrow converted to red marrow when blood supply is low
megakaryocyte produces platelets
what produeces platelets megakaryocyte
types of leukocytes never let monkeys eat banana (neutrophil, lymphocyte, macrocyte, eosinophil, basophil)
giberellins hormone which allows stem elongation and induces plants to flower
hormone which allows stem elongation and induces plants to flower giberellins
cytokinin hormone which promotes cell division
hormone which promotes cell division cytokinin
ethylene fruuit ripening
abscisic acid inhibit planht growth hormone
what inhibits plant growth hormone abscisic acid
structure of collagen triple helix
plants have/lack centriole lack
animals have/lack centriole have
blue green algae is in what domain monera(cyanobacteria)
most accurate way to work out molecular structure x-ray diffraction
gram +/- bacteria have thick peptidoglycan +
gram +/- bacteria appear purple after gram staining +
gram +/- bacteria have thin peptidoglycan -
gram +/- bacteria are pathogenic -
teichoic acid used as binding site used by bacterial viruses on gram positive bacteria
middle ear contains 3 occipitals, mallus, incus, stapes
inner ear contains semicircular canal (for balance) and cochlea (converts sound wave into neural messages)
glucagon produced in pancreatic alpha
insulin produced in pancreatic beta
aldosterone causes Na+, H2O reabsorption, K+ secretion
fungi composed of filaments called __, collectively called hyphae, mycelium
fungi reproduces sexually/asexually both
eg of saprophytic all fungi
fungi lack/have cell walls have, (chitin)
habitat physical environment in which organism occupies
physical environment in which organism occupies habitat
niche ROLE an organism plays in a community
community interaction between different species
interaction between different species community
ROLE an organism plays in a community niche
arthropods have open/closed circulatory system open
nephridia is excretory structure in annelids
annelids have open/closed circulatory system closed
3 stages of fetus development morula blastrula gastrula (must be good)
morula to blastrula by mitosis or meiosis mitosis
nervous system is ecto/endo/mesoderm ectoderm
skeleton is ecto/endo/mesoderm mesoderm
gonad is ecto/endo/mesoderm mesoderm
kidney is ecto/endo/mesoderm mesoderm
circulatory system is ecto/endo/mesoderm mesoderm
lining of bladder is ecto/endo/mesoderm endoderm
liver is ecto/endo/mesoderm endoderm
pancreas is ecto/endo/mesoderm endoderm
cells of stomach chief, parietal, G-cell
how does stomach wall not degraded by acid mucous protects stomch
some eg of cnidaria hydras, jellyfish, sea anemoas
stinging cells in Cnidaria called nematocyst
nematocysts stinging cells in Cnidaria
eg of cartilaginous fish shark, rays
distinguishing feature about cartilaginous fish skel composed of cartilage
shark, rays eg of what fish cartilaginous fish
characteristics of chordates Do Not Pinch People dorsal hallow nerve cord notocord pharangeal slits postanal tail
structure of collagen triple helix, every 3rd position occupied by Glycine
how body releases Ca2+ PTH => inc. osteoclast
how body decreases Ca2+ calcitonin => inc. osteoblast
posterior pituitary releases oxytocin, ADH
ADH released from posterior pituitary
calcitonin released from thyroid
PTH released from parathyroid
epinephrine inc or dec blood sugar level increase
eg of catecholamine epinephrine, NE
thyroxin released from what and its effect thyroid gland, inc basal metablolic rate
reverse transcription RNA -> DNA
adaptive radiation aka divergent evolution
divergent evolution aka adaptive radiation
hardy weinberg requires no maggie may does not smoke + isolation mutation migration drift non-random mating selection
hardy weinberg shows how genotype and phenotype stability can be achieved
chromosomal inversion one chromosome turned 180 degrees
chromosomal translocation 2 non homogeneous chromosomes interchange genes
anticodon triplet of NT on tRNA
maternal DNA seen in mitochondria
dowm syndrome, number of chromosome in an individual with this syndrome trisomy 21, 47
Turner syndrome, number of chromosome in an individual with this syndrome lack an X chromosome, 44 autosome, 1 sex chromosome => total of 45 chromosme
turner syndrome symptom less feminine (no ovaries)
kleinfelter syndrome XXY or XXXY, ALWAYS 44 autosome
kleinfelter syndrome symptom sterile, feminine males
sterile, feminine males symtom of __ syndrome kleinfelter
less feminine (no ovaries) symptom of __ syndrome turner
spermatozoa matured in epididymis
__ cells secrete testeosterone ledig
spermatogenisis occurs in semineferous tubule
darwin's therory on molecular genetics and mutations never discussed these ideas
corpus luteum turnes into __ in case no ferilization occurs corpus albican
where does fertilzation occur fallopian tube
oocyte development halted at __ until puberty prophase I of meiosis
amphixous and tunicates are __ phylum that lack __ chordata, vertebrates (ie they're invertebrates)
all vertebrates are in __ phylum chordata
special feature about amphixous and tunicates chordates which are invertebrates. they don't lose their notochord like all other chordates
genetic code universal except for __ mitochondria and chloroplast
cholecystokinin is made in __ its role is to __ duodenum, stimulate bile release from gall bladder
secretin is made in __ its role is to __ duodenum, stimulate production of pancreatic juice
enterogasterase is made in __ its role is to __ duodenum, inhibit stomach gland secretion
breathing rate is sensitive to H+ or CO2 or O2 all
eg of veins carrying o2'd blood umbilical vein, pulmonary vein
ductus venosus umbilical vein -> (bypass liver) -> inferior vena cava
foramen ovale shunt flow from right to left atrium
ductus arteriosus pulmonary artery -> (bypass lung) -> aorta
how does gas exchange occur in fetal lung doesn't occur
__ allows left and right hemispheres of brain to communicate corpus callosum
during light __ produced in __. O2, NADPH high [H+], ATP(from H+ gradient)
dark rxn known as __ occurs in calvin cycle, stroma
calvin cycle requires __ for each CO2 that becomes incorporated in carbohydrate 3ATP, 2NADPH
final product of calvin cycle G3P, NOT glucose!!
production of 1 glucose via calvin cycle requires __ ATP , __ NADPH 18, 12
ligament connects __ to _ bone to bone
tendons connect __ to __ bone to muscle
haversion canals have blood vessels, nerves
phylum mollusca divides into __ and __ cephalopoda, gastropoda
cephalopoda in __ phylum, includes __ mollusca, squid, octopus
class crustacean in __ phylum inclucdes arthropoda, crab, shrimp, lobster
class arachnida in __ phylum includes arthropoda, scoprians, spiders
shrimp in __ class, __ phylum crustacean, arthropoda
spider in __ class, __ phylum arachnida, arthropoda
bile produced in liver
N. waste -> urea occurs in liver
major glycogen storage liver
analogous structure = __ evolution convergent eg. bat vs bird wings
homologous structure = __ evolution divergent
transpiration is loss of H2O from leaves
hydrolysis using water to split molecules
hydration addn of water
diapause resting condition of insect similar to animal hibernation
if body doesn't produce enough ADH, loss of H2O, large quantity of urine
diabetes insipidus caused by not enough ADH produced
type 1 diabetes mellitus autoimmune destroyes pancreatic beta cells
type 2 diabetes mellitus body resistant to insulin
sugar in urine symptom of diabetes mellitus
common symptom of diabetes melllitus sugar in urine
most reabsorption in kidney occurs in proximal tubule
sugar actively/passively reabsorbed actively
major secretion in kidney occurs in distal tubule
mRNA produced by RNA polymerase
PKU disease lack enzymes for phenylalanine
__ disease lack enzymes for phenylalanine PKU
gout uric acid crystals deposit
uric acid crystals deposit gout
diabetes insipidus caused by not enought vasopressin
tay sach defective lysosome
defective lysosome tay sach
hashimoto's disease defective thyroid
defective thyroid hasimoto's disease
RBC lacks mitochondria, nucleus
nuclues in sperm in head
tropoblast is precursor of placenta
precursor of placenta called tropoblast
fish has __ chambered heart 2
frog has __ chambered heart 3
bird has __ chambered heart 4
__ absorbs digest fat from intestine lacteal (small lymph vessel)
sexual dimorphism male and female differ in appearance
B-cell results in __ which causes humoral immune response, produce antibodies in blood and lymph
T-cell developed in __ results in __ which causes thymus, cell-mediated immune response, apoptosis
newly hatched duck following moving object eg of imprinting
imprinting is __. an eg is learning occuring at a particular stage of life, newly hatched duck following parents
Barr body is inactivated X chromosome
hemizygous is __ eg is having single copy of gene, instead of two. eg. male XY
chondrichthys skates and sharks
amphibian toads frogs
aves birds
agnatha hagfish, lamprey
genetic drift change in allele freq caused by PHENOMINA, entirely from CHANCE
speciation process by which new species arrive
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clone DNA
__ technique to clone DNA PCR
product of kreb cycle 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP
bacteria derive E from glycolysis, ETC (special)
cross-over occurs in prophase 1 of meiosis
chlorphyll in thylakoid
ledig cell secretes testosteron
purpose of lactate prductino in active muscle replenish NAD+ for glycolysis
apocrine gland gland that respond to stress
eccrine gland maintains body temp
cnidoblast cells located in tentacles of coelenterate, filled with nematocyst
ion in chlorophyll Mg2+
ion in Hb Fe2+
each NT bound to the next one by __ bond phosphodiester (3'OH to 5'OH)
__develops into umbilical cord allantois
stroke volume volume of blood pump in each beat
achondoplasia dwarfism
progeria premature aging
2 negative inhibitions in female hormone estrogen -FSH, progesterone -LH
Glycolysis end product pyruvate
ABO bloodgroup represents polymorphysm
reptiles have __ chambered heart 3
tunicates invertebrate with notocord
amphixous invertebrate with notocord
vegetative propagation asexual reproduction in plants
asexual reproduction in plants called vegetative propagation
double fertilization in plants sperm (1N) unites with zygote (2N) to form 3N (endosperm)
cotyledon forms leaves after germination
amphibians have closed/open circulatory closed
most abundent product of metabolism CO2
denaturing protein affects primary or sec, or tert, or quternary structure all except for primary structure (sequence of AA)
female part of flower pistil
male part of flower stamen
anther chamber where pollen develops
chamber where pollen develops anther
immature male gametophyte pollen
3 parts of pistil ovary, style, stigma
part which catches pollens stigma
in plants haploid gametophyte is multi/unicelluar multicellular
in animals haploid gametophyte is multi/unicellular unicellular
subunits in Hb 2alpha, 2beta
transposable elements can cut themselves, reinsert in another area
how do somatic cells alter genetic constitution without meiosis via transposable elements
major criteron in defining a species reproductive isolation
mollusca have open/closed circulatory system cephalopods - closed gastropods - open
cephalopods have low/high O2 demand high, for jet propulsion
virus containing RNA calle retrovirus
cruetzfeldt-jacob prion disease
kingdom protista includes paramecium, green algae
paramecium in what kingdom protista
green algae in what kingdom protista
blue green algae in what kingdom monera
nematoda hookworm, pinworm
platyhelminths tapeworm
hookworm in phylum nematoda
pinworm in what phylum nematod
tapeworm in what phylum platyhelminths
deuterosteome echinoderm + chordata, anus -> mouth
bryophyte non-vascular (non-tracheophyte), mosses, liverworts
non-tracheophytic plants in what phylum bryophyte
mosses in what phylum bryophyte
liverworts in what phylum bryophyte
parasite transmitted by mosquito called sporazoan
sporazoan parasite transmitted by mosquito called
malaria caused by plasmodium
plasmodium malaria caused by
osteoartharitis wearing away of carilage as a person ages
wearing away of carilage as a person ages osteoartharitis
rheumatoid artharitis degenerative genetic disorder
degenerative genetic disorder causing wearing away of cartilage rheumatoid artharitis
osteoblast matures into osteoclast
plasma cells function antibody production (B-cell)
antibody production (B-cell) by plasma cells
mast cells function histamine release
histamine release by mast cells
allantois function store nitrogenous waste
most abundent RNA rRNA
least abundent RNA mRNA
anticodon bdd to codon by _ bond H-bond
relationsihp betw. lichen and algae eg of symbiosis (lichen protects, alga supplies food)
albumin contained in __ which __ plasma, maintain blood osmotic pressure
In antibody (immunoglobin), two heavy chains linked to two light chains by __ S-S
mullerian mimics group of organisms posessing the same yellow warning color, although phylogenetically unrelated
group of organisms posessing the same yellow warning color, although phylogenetically unrelated mullerian mimics
tannin unsatisfactory taste in plants
unsatisfactory taste in plants tannin
stem cells in bone marrow produce RBC via mitosis/meosis mitosis
5 classes of immunoblobin IgG IgA IgM IgE IgD
helper t cell stimulate prod. of antibody by B cell
antigenic determinant site on antigen, where antibody bdd to
site on antigen, where antibody bdd to antigenic determinant
an egg has __ chromosome, __ chromatid 23, 23
nucleosome histone + DNA
histone + DNA nucleosome
complement system chemical defense system comprised of serum (complements immunme systme)_
allopathic speciation speciation due to geographical isolation
speciation due to geographical isolation allopathic speciation
sympatic speciation speciation due to ecological , genetic, behavioural barriers within SAME GEOG BOUNDING
speciation due to ecological , genetic, behavioural barriers within SAME GEOG BOUNDING sympatic speciation
genetic population bottleneck diaster wipes out large population. alles/freq of survivor doesn't represent the large population
diaster wipes out large population. alles/freq of survivor doesn't represent the large population genetic population bottleneck
protostome mollusca, arthropoda, annelids, mouth -> anus
oncotoic presure pull water into circulatory system
hydrostatic presure pull water out of circulatory system
zymogen inactive form of enzyme eg pepsinogen
inactive form of enzyme eg pepsinogen zymogen
spherical bacteria cocci
rod shape bacteria bacilli
helical bacteria spiralla
era's in order Peter Pan May Cry (Precambian, Paleozoic (first vertebrates, algae), Mesozoic (dino), Cenozoic
Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny not accepted theory, says embroynic stages repeat evolutionary history of species
plasmolysis cell shrink due to water loss
cell shrink due to water loss plasmolysis
sucrose composed of gluc + fruc
maltose comp of 2 gluc
lactose comp of galac + gluc
T or F earliest organism heterotrophs were obligate aerobes F. obligate anaerobes
halophiles bacteria living in salty environmnet
mendel suggested 2 theories 1. law of indep assortment 2. law of segregation
pyrimidine has _ ring 1
purine has _ ring 2
voice box larynx
head of bacteriophage, where DNA/RNA formed caspid
caspid head of bacteriophage, where DNA/RNA formed
interferons cytokine (glycoprotein), produced in response to viral attack
cytokine (glycoprotein), produced in response to viral attack interferons
algae in what kingdom protista
carrying capacity # of organisms that can be sustained by resources
pulse-chase exp use radioactive label on protein to detect what's happening to it
optically inactive AA glycine
ferns vascular or nonvascular vascular
mosses vascular or nonvascular nonvascular
in ferns spores produced from __ sporangia
clusters of sporangia sori
sori clusters of sporangia
sori found in ferns
source of sugar in photosynthesis CO2
source of O2 in photosynthesis H2O
a map unit is 1% recomb frequency
K-selected population low reproductive rate
R-selected population high reproductive rate eg bacteria
agonistic behaviours two animals compete
casparian strip waxy band in plant.
most CO2 in body in form of HCO3-
food and air cross over at phayrnx
buffer system in intracellular fluid H2PO4-, HPO42-
buffer system in extracellular fluid HCO3-, H2CO32-
reabsorbed glucose from intestine carried to liver by portal vein
capacitation required for egg penetration, fertilzation
protoplasm all material within cell
cytoplasm all material within cell - nucleus
organ system group of organs with related functions
aneurysm fluid filled buldge in weaked wall of artery
insulin causes cell to become more/less permeable to glucose more glut4 moved to surface allowing more gluc to move out of cell
true plastid chloroplast
plastid in plants or animals only in plants
smallest passages of lungs bronchiole
aquatic animals excrete ammonia
birds, reptiles, insects excrete uric acid
flagellum compose of MT + dynein, kinesin (9+2)
@ gastrula there are 3 layers, namely endo, ecto, meso
3 layers of skin epidermis, dermis, hypodermis (subcutaneous)
lipid bilayer symmetric or nonsymmetric nonsymmetric
lamarkian theory not accepted anymore, acquired trait passed down to offspring
before DNA, __ was the universal genetic code RNA
keratin fibrous protien, makes skin waterproof
mesenchyme stem cell for connective tissue
stem cell for connective tissue mesenchyme
cori cycle lactate->glucose
cori cycle occurs in what organ liver
FA synth occurs in what part of cell cytosol
primary protein modific site golgi
somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning technique, remove nucleus from somatic cell, implant into an egg
recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) alter genome of an organism by having DNA transplanted in it, used to make insulin
plasmid double stranded, circular DNA
vector DNA DNA about to be altered
vector and donor DNA joined by DNA ligase
when vector and donar DNA joined, forms recombinant DNA
how insulin made via recombinant dna technology join vector and donor DNA, introduce this rec. DNA to E-coli. E-coli replicates this recombinant DNA and produeces insulin
when extrachromosomal gene becomes a part of main chromosome, its called episome
single gene affecting more than one phenotype pleiotrophy
pleiotrophy single gene affecting more than one phenotype
epstatic gene cover up expression of another gene
cover up expression of another gene epstatic gene
difference betw. epstasis and ordinary dominance epstasis involves 2 different genes, whereas ordinary dominance deals with same type of gene
acrosome cause breakdown of protective surface of egg
_ in sperm cause breakdown of protective surface of egg acrosome
introns are traanscribed but not translated T or F F neither transcribed nor translated
precursor to prokaryotes protobionts
operant conditioning reward & consequence(positive or negative) animal learns to associate action with consequence
1 spermatogonia produces 4 spermatozoa
secretion from prostate gland neutralizes ___ seminal fluid
blood travels slowest in capillary
first plant to have seeds gymnosperm
paramecium ciliated protozoa, contractile vacuole to remove H2O
in SDS, heavy protein appear on top/bottom light on top/bottom top, bottom
longest stage of cell cycle G1
cell cycle in order G0, G1, S, G2, M
peptide hormone bdd on PM or in cell on PM
steroid hormone bdd on PM or in cell in cell
facultative anaerobe live with or without O2, but grow better in presence of O2
O3 converts UV to __ heat
__behavior precedes mating courtship
mitoch in __ of sperm midpiece
__ of sperm comes in contact with __ of egg acrosome, zona pellucida
__ is the only AA capable of forming S-S cystein
degree and type of DNA coiling controlled by DNa topoisomer
ribosome has __ subunit 2, each with rRNA and protein
valine non polar AA
western blotting identify protein
when protein denatured __ structures present primary
modif of protein occurs in RER and golgi
XX (female) has _ barr body 1
XY (male) has _ barr body 0
XXXXY has _ barr body 3
uric acid removed by kidney
bacterial phase lytic (virulent), lysogenic (provirus)
stages of bacterial growth (Curve) 1. lag 2. exp. growth 3. plateau 4. death
penicillin affect on bacteria inhibit cell wall production
inclusions material, energy storage in bacteria
what kind of immune response does prion disease cause none
lipid absorbed in jejunum, illeum
compound light microscope used for viewing dead cell
phase contrast for viewing living cell
cell wall of prokaryotes composed of peptidoglycan
cell wall of fungi chitin
cell wall of plants cellulose
karyokenisis division of nucleus
hermaphrodites have functional male and female gondads
3 binding sites on ribosome 1 for mRNA 2 for tRNA (P and A sites)
disruptive selection eliminate intermediate, favor extreme
stabilizing selection favor intermediate, eliminate extremes
directional selection eliminate one extreme
bryophytes includes__, and have dominant __ stage mosses, liverwort, dominant gametophyte
angiosperm has dominant __ stage sprophyte
transformation in bacteria plasmid gets incorporated via recombination (episome)
conjugation in bacteria F factor transferred to F-
transduction in bacteria bacteriophage infects host cell
peritubular capillary absorb H2O from loop of Henle
murmur blood backflow caused by faulty heart valve
blood plasma all components in blood - RBC
reticular activating system startle response (involves complex reflexes)
startle response (involves complex reflexes) reticular activating system
birds and animals flock, or herd together an example of fixed action pattern
habituation repeated stimulation results in decreased responsiveness to stimuli
repeated stimulation results in decreased responsiveness to stimuli habituation
recovering from habituation called spontaneous recovery
spontaneous recovery recovery of lost responsiveness to stimuli over time
pavlovian conditioning known as classical conditioning
classical conditioning aka pavlovian conditioning
response learned thru Pavlovian conditioning refered to as conditioned reflex
conditioned reflex classical conditioning
dog drooling at smell of food eg of innate reflex
after associating sound of bell to food, a dog salivates at the sound of bell alone. this is an eg of conditioned reflex
operant conditioning reward or reinforcement
reward or reinforcement conditioning aka operant conditioning
pavlovian conditioning involves associating neutral stimulus to a stimuli that is capable of triggering the response. ie. establishment of a new reflex
gradual elimination of response to stimuli due to lack of reinforcement extinction
recovery of conditioned response after extinction called spontaneous recovery
if light is not present during ___ visual effectors will not be developed properly. this is an eg of __ visual critical period, critical period.
the heirarchy among members of the same species pecking order
eg of autotrophic aerobes plants, autotrophic aerobes (glucose is synthesized + oxidative phosphorylation)
eg of autotrophic anaerobes chemosynthetic bacteria, (glucose synthesized + no O2 required to survive)
a group of cells with related function tissue
a group of organs with relatied function organ system
types of hormone peptide, steroid, tyrosine derived
euk, prok ribosomes euk - 80S, prok - 70S
mutualism relation in which both organisms benefit
symbiosis mutualisitic, parasitic, commensal relationships
sperm has flagella or cilia flagella
atrial natiuretic peptide lowers blood volume
trypsin and chymotrypsin eg of __ enzyme which _ protease, degrade peptide
eg of hormones derived from tyrosine thyroid, E, NE
post trans modif of proteins occurs in golgi
prokaryotes have/lack chloroplast lack
auxin plant hormone responsible for tendency of plant to bend towrds light
plant hormone responsible for tendency of plant to bend towrds light auxin
heart from endo/ecto/meso meso
pollen male gametophyte
ferns in __ phylum pterophyte
pterophyte includes ferns
stomach digests/not digest protein digest
stomach digests/not digest carbs doesn't digest
amoeba in __ phylum protista
paramecium in__ phylum protista
paramecium has what kind of digestive system none
protista has what kind of digestive system none
annelids have what kind of digestive system one-way, mouth and anus
RNA has same seq base as __ of DNA sense strand
transcription starts at sense/anti-sense strand anti-sense
light rxn occurs in thylakoid
dark rxn aka, occurs in calvin cycle, stroma
during light rxn what happens? light E -> NADPT + ATP + O2
during calvin cycle what happens CO2 incorporated to make G3P
Bacteria has how many origin of DNA replication 1
eukaryotes have how many origin of DNA replication many
helicase unwind DNA at replic fork
unwind DNA at replic fork helicase
topoisomerase release tension during unwinding
release tension during unwinding topoisomerase
promotor specific seq of DNA where RNA poly. attaches to start transcription
specific seq of DNA where RNA poly. attaches to start transcription promotor
monocot has how many cotyledon 1
parallel leaf vein monocot
net-like leaf vein dicot
dicot has how many cotyledon 2
__ have determinate cell cleavage protostome
__ have indeterminate cell cleavage deutrostome
seed plants gymnosperm @ angiosperm
modified apical meristem flower
__ give a rise to fruit ovary
T or F plastids are organelles that produce food T, eg. gluc. made in chloroplast via photosynthesis
ecosystem functional unit, comprising biotic and abiotic components
entropy: disordering of universe T or F F. it is a measure of unusuable energy
PGA -> PGAL during dark rxn
CO2 in water is acidic/basic acidic (produce H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3-)
immune cells don't attack cells of its own body b/c body eliminates immune cells that react to self.
__ develops into placenta allantois
__ region of kidney has the lowest solute conc't cortex
Created by: honghee
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