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MCAT chem ch 1-3

Chemistry highlights for Princeton Review Chem ch 1-3

Plank's Constant (h) 6.63x10^-34 J*s
Speed of light (c) 3x10^8 m/s
Equation for the Energy of a photon hf or h*(c/wavelength)
Hund's rule electrons in the same subshel occupy available orbitals singly, before pairing up
Aufbau principle Electrons opccupy the lowest energy orbitals available
Pauli exclusion principle no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
n,l,m(l),m(s) n = shell numberl = subshell number (n-1)m(l) = orbital numberm(s) = +1/2; -1/2
diamagnetic has all electrons paired, repelled by magnetic field
paramagnetic not fully paired electrons; attracted to magnetic field
H Hydrogen, 1.0, 1
He Helium, 4.0, 2
Li Lithium, 6.9, 3
Be Berillium, 9.0, 4
B Boron, 10.8, 5
C Carbon, 12.0, 6
N Nitrogen, 14.0, 7
O Oxygen, 16.0, 8
F Fluorine, 19.0, 9
Ne Neon, 20.2, 10
Na Sodium, 23.0, 11
Mg Magnesium, 24.3, 12
Al Aluminum, 27.0, 13
Si Silicon, 28.1, 14
P Phosphorus, 31.0, 15
S Sulfer, 32.1, 16
Cl Chlorine, 35.5, 17
A Argon, 39.9, 18
K Potassium, 39.1, 19
Ca Calcium, 40.1, 20
Cu Copper, 63.5, 29
Zn Zinc 65.4, 30
Fe Iron, 55.8, 26
Ag Silver, 107.9, 47
Au Gold, 197.0, 79
Pb Lead, 207.2, 82
Beta Decay (B-) unstable nucleus contains too many neutrons; 1n-> 1p and 1e-; atomic number (z)increases by 1 but mass number stays the same [ex: 6C-> 7N + 1e-]; MOST COMMON FORM OF BETA DECAY
Beta Decay (B+) unstable nucleus contains too few neutrons; 1p-> 1positron + n; atomic number (z) decreases by 1 but mass number stays the same [ex: 9F-> 8O + 1e+]
Alpha Decay (a) nucleus becomes more stable by ejecting alpha particle (2p and 2n) {same as a helium molecule}; reduces atomic number (z) by 2 and the mass number by 4; Ex: (210, 84, Po) -> (206, 82 Pb) + (4, 2 alpha)
Electron Capture nucleus combines an e- with a p to make a neutron; atomic number (z)decreases by 1, atomic number remains the same
Gamma Decay an excited nucleus that has undergone beta or alpha decay relaxes by emitting energy in the form of 1 or more photons which have very high frequency and energy. Gamma decay penetrates matter most effectively, no mass, charge, or effect on z or n
mass defect the mass of the combined nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of all its nucleons individually, stable nucleus will always have a positive mass defect
eV electronvolts, 1eV= 1.6 x 10^-19 J,
1kg = ?? Joules 19 x 10^16 J
1 amu = ??? kg 1.66 x 10^-27 kg
Equation for mass-energy equivalence E=mc^2 (in joules); or E= m(in amu) x 931.5 eV
Alkali metals Group I ns^1
Alkaline earth metals Group II ns^2
Halogens Group VII ns^2np^5
Transition metals d block
Representative metals p block (except for Group VIII)
Rare earth metals f block
Noble gases Group VIII ns^2 np^6
the horizontal row on the periodic table period
vertical column on the periodic table group
Metalloids elements that contain properties of both metals and non metals: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po
Atomic and Ionic Radius Trend moving from left to right across a period, atomic radius decreases (b/c increasing numbers of protons pulls the electrons in stronger) going down a group atomic radii increases via increased shielding
Ionization energy (energy needed to remove an electron) trend left to right ionization energy increasesb/c valence e- are bound tighter
Electron Affinity halogens have large negative electron affinities, they readily accept electrons which causes E to be released
Electronegativity F>O>N>CL>Br>I>S>C>H {Foncl Brisch} is a measure of an atoms ability to pull electrons to itself when it forms a covalent bond increases from left to right
Acidity how well a compound donates protons, accepts electrons, or lowers pH. acidity increases from left to right, and increases as you go down a group
Formal Charge FC= Valence - 1/2(Bonded) - number of lone pair electrons
coordinate covalent bond one atom will donate both of the shared electrons in a bond
Lewis Acid Accepts a pair of electrons
Lewis Base/Ligand Donates a pair of electrons; must have a pair of nonbonding electrons to be a lewis base
Linear, Trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral has no lone pairs of electrons on the central atom
Bent, trigonal pyramid, see-saw, square pyramid has 1 pair of electrons on the central atom
Bent, T-shaped, Square planar has 2 pairs of electrons on the central atom
Hybridization of Linear sp
Hybridization of Trigonal Planar sp^2
Hybridization of Tetrahedral sp^3
Hybridization of Trigonal bipyramidal sp^3 d
Hybridization of Octahedral sp^3 d^2
Heat of Transition ΔH amount of energy required to complete a transition
q (heat) = n x ΔH{of a phase change} If q and ΔH are positive heat is absorbed if negative heat is released
1 Calorie = ??? Joules 4.2 J ; is the amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water 1 degree
q (heat) = mCΔT ...
specific heat the higher the specific heat of a substance the better it holds on to absorbed heat
Temperature change is proportional to the heat absorbed, but inversely proportional to heat capcity ...
During a phase transition tempature doesn't change the greater the value for the heat of transition the longer the flat line on a phase change diagram , Heat of Vap always > Heat of Fusion ...
Triple point is the temperature and pressure at which all three phases exist simultaneouly in equilibrium
critical point marks the end of the liquid-gas boundary beyond this point a substance displays properties of both a liquid and a gas (supercritcal fluid)
supercritcal fluid no amount of pressure can force the gas back into a liquid state
Created by: brianja33