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Mcat Stuff

Spherical bacteria Cocci
Rod-shaped bacteria Bacilli
Helical bacteria Spirochetes
What occurs in the nucleolus? rRNA synthesis
Force = ?density? Force = density(of fluid or air) x volume(of fluid or air displaced) x gravity
What is higher? Second or first ionization energy? Second
Electron Affinity The element that wants to accept electrons, get reduced. The energy associated with gaining an electron in the ground state of a gaseous atom
work = Work = fdcosϑ. or Work = mg∆h. Work = ∆KE. Net work CAN BE ZERO!
Potential Energy of a spring U = 1/2kx²
Reduction Gain in electrons
Volt Joules / Coulomb
Ortho-Para directing groups with a lone pair of electrons when bound to the benzene ring. ALSO alkyl groups (CH3). -NH2, -OH, -NHCOR, -OR, -alkyl, -aryl -halogens
As source of sound nears the detector, the frequency... is perceived as higher
Sodium Borohydride adds markovnikov or -anti markovnikov addition
What functional group lays at 1700 on the IR spectra? C=O
State function Property that depends only of the current state of the system, not on the way the system aquired the state. example - energy, enthalpy, entropy, NOT work or heat
H2O (l) <--> H2O (s) Increase pressure favors... TRICKY! Favors liquid, because system counteracts increase in pressure by favoring side with less volume (more dense phase). Water is more dense than ice!
Alpha hydrogen to the carbonyl is most or least acidic? Most acidic
Tangential velocity of a star = ? Kinetic Energy
Centripetal Force = ? (Mass(object) x v²) / r
V(final) = V(initial) + at
V²(final) = V²(initial) + 2ax
∆X = v(initial) + 1/2 at²
Inelastic collision Momentum IS conserved. KE is not conserved.
Binding energy mass defect of nucleus x speed of light squared energy released in a fusion or fission rxn.
Adding resistors in parallel will cause the total effective resistance to be lower or higher than the individual resistors? lower
cofactor non-protein chemical compound. bound to a protein and required for the proteins biological activity REQUIRED FOR ENZYME ACTIVITY!
coenzyme zymogen. inactive enzyme precursor that requires some biochemical change to be activated
Spleen... removes old RBCs. responsible for humoral and cell mediated immunity
lymphatic system 1) removes proteins from interstitial spaces 2) absorbs fats from gi tract 3) removes and destroys foreign materials
Freezing point depression equation T = k*m where T=temperature, k = constant, m = molality ***K AND M ARE MULTIPLIED, NOT DIVIDED!!!
sin 30 = .5
cos 30 = .86
sin 45 = cos 45 = .7
final kinetic energy of a particle = voltage x charge of the particle (coloumbs)
power = iV, i²R , Work/Time, Energy/Time, Joules/Second
magnification = - i / o - image / object
if magnification is negative object is inverted
How does wavelength vary with energy Longer wavelength = lower energy Shorter wavelength = greater energy
Which has the highest energy? sp, sp2, sp3? sp3 has highest energy because it has most p character.
azimuthal quantum number L s, p , d, f...
magnetic quantum number the number after the spdf. s"2" or p"6"
pressure = force / area AND Energy / Volume F/A = E/V = Pressure NOTICE - this is the gauge pressure!!! to calculate total absolute pressure, add gauge pressure to the atmospheric pressure (1 atm)
Spring Force (Hooke's Law) F = -k∆x dont forget it's CHANGE in x
ω = = angular frequency = 2πf = √(k/m)
Bacteria have what kind of chromosome? Where is it found? Single circular chromosome located in nucleoid (no membrane)
Important precursor steroid molecule from which other steroids are synthesized... Cholesterol. Helps create steroid hormones
Where is ammonia produced? What is it converted to? Inside individual cells. Ammonia is converted to urea. Urea is an uncharged particle that can pass through cell membrane without ATP.
Osmolarity Measure of solute concentration. # moles of solute / volume of solution
Mammalian dive reflex blood flows to core organs. heat is increased. blood pressure increases. heart rate slow.
T-cells... Helper T-cells activate B- and T-cells through lymphokine secretion Cytotoxic T-cells kill antigens Suppressor T-cells downregulate B- and T-cell activity against antigens
Pancreas endocrine secretions glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin.
How do you test for noncompetitive versus competitive inhibitors for enzymes? If you increase the substrate concentration, COMPETITIVE inhibition can be overcome. This is because the enzyme will bind more often to the substrate than the enzyme will bind to the competitive inhibitor.
Primary determinant of blood's osmotic pressure... Albumin. An osmotically active plasma protein.
Osmotic pressure π = MRT, where M=molarity, R=constant, T=temp. Pressure you must apply to keep water from flowing in through a semi-permeable membrane
Parathyroid hormone Calcium resorption in bone (breaking down bone), kidney (activates vitamin D), and small intestine. Excretion of phosphate in urine.
β- decay ONLY CHANGE IS GAIN OF A PROTON IN THE CHEMICAL FORMULA. converts a neutron into a proton while emitting an electron
What type of mirrors and lenses can NOT produce real images? Upright virtual images produced by convex lenses and mirrors. And concave mirrors and lenses when within the focal length.
Bile Created in liver. Stored in gallbladder. Secreted to duodenum. Emulsifies lipids.
Duodenum first section of small intestine. site of protein, fat, and carbohydrate(sugar) digestion
Allopatric speciation Geographical separation of species causes species to evolve differently and over time prevent interbreeding.
DNA gyrase Aids in negative supercoiling the DNA
Helicase Unwinds the double helix of DNA
Single stranded binding protein Binds and stabilizes the single strands of unbound DNA.
Primase Aids in binding RNA to DNA
What is the difference between nucleophilic and electrophilic addition? In nucleophilic addition, the electrons of the nucleophile are added to the compound. In electrophilic addition, the electrons of a pi bond in the compound grab the substrate.
Youngs Modulus Stress / Strain or (F/A) / (∆L/L)
Specific gravity = Density of object / density of water = amount of the object that is submerged
Parthenogenesis is... asexual female reproduction
Female menstrual cycle Day 1 - Menses Day 7 - Menses ends. GnRH stimulates FSH and LH to increase. Day 14 - FSH and LH peak. Corpus luteum forms. Day 21 - Progesterone peaks. Day 28 - FSH and LH at lowest point.
Reverse transcriptase contained in viruses. A DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes RNA into single stranded DNA
Anabolic smaller molecules make larger molecules
pH is above isoelectric point of amino acid moves toward anode
pH is below isoeletric point of amino acid moves toward cathode
Ksp Solubility equilibrium between dissolved and solid state. Usually x² / (conc), and solving for x = H+ take -log(H+) = pH. SOLIDS DO NOT SHOW UP IN EQUATION.
A buffer solution weak acid and the salt of its conjugate base.
In a galvanic cell, anode is negative
In a electrolytic cell, anode is positive
? | ? || ? | ? Anode Electrode | Anode Electrolyte || Cathode Electrolyte | Cathode Electrode
Capacitance = Q/V and k(A/D) where k = dielectric, A = area, D = Distance
Resistance = ρL/A, where ρ = resistivity, L = length, A = area
Voltage(rms) = Voltage(peak) / √2
E = hf = hc/λ
Bernoullis Equation for fluids P + 1/2ρv² + ρgh = Constant NOTICE: h is arbitrarily a point that measures from that point to the top of the fluid.
E(cell) = E(cathode) - E(anode) ... when both in reduction form
Magnitude of work associated with volume change of gas at constant pressure... If it expands, work is done on.. If it contracts, work is done on.. If there is net positive work done.. Work = P∆V. Contraction means work is done on gas. Expansion means work is done on environment. If net work is done, more work is done on the environment during expansion, then on the gas during contraction.
Thermal expansion of a solid = ΔL = aLΔT, where a = constant, L = original length, T = change in temp.
What changes as light goes from one medium to another? Wavelenth, velocity, and index of refraction change. Frequency stays constant.
Real images Concave mirrors and lenses produce real inverted images when further then the focal point. Focal point is positive.
Benzyl- Aromatic ring - CH3 - R
Polymerase chain reaction Technique to amplify a single or few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude
Crossing over occurs when... matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome. therefore, genes close together will be "crossed over" together. genes far apart, will most likely not be "crossed over" together.
Virion Mature virus outside of host cell
Provirus Dormant virus requiring some kind of stressor to become virulent
Lytic infection Virus inserts its nucleic acid into host cell and keeps multiplying
Lysogenic infection The nucleic acid becomes integrated into host cells chromosomes.
Epinephrine Stimulates the heart and inhibits smooth muscle
Aldosterone A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that stimulates resorption of sodium (Na) and water in kidneys in response to low blood volume. Causes excretion of potassium. Increases blood volume.
Agonist Muscle responsible for movement
Antagonist Muscle that stretches in response to agonist
T-tubules Allow for uniform contraction of the muscle by allowing the action potential to spread through muscle quickly
Role of Ca+2 in muscular contraction Ca2+ is released into the cytoplasm and binds to the troponin molecules on the thin filaments causing the tropomyosin molecules to shift, exposing the myosin-binding sites on the actin. The myosin heads now bind to the actin, and the sarcomere contracts.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Stores Ca+2 until an action potential occurs in the muscle, and then it becomes permeable and releases the Ca+2
Type 1 fibers Slow twitch
Type 2 fibers Fast twitch
Na+/K+ pump 3 Na+ pumped out of cell, 2 K+ pumped into cell. Net positive charge outside of cell.
What happens during an action potential? Action potential starts at axon hillock. Na+ flows into cell (depolarization) and then stops, K+ flows out of cell (repolarization). Then refractory period, and Na+/K+ pump restores to initial equilibrium
Plasmid small DNA strand that can replicate independently within a cell
Prophage genetic material of bacteriophage that is incorporated into bacterial genome
Saltatory conduction action potential jumps from one node of ranvier to next
Autonomic nervous system Controls involuntary smooth and cardiac muscle
Somatic nervous system Part of the peripheral nervous system!! Controls voluntary skeletal muscle. Knee jerk and diaphragm contraction
Yeast eukaryotic, unicellular, facultive anaerobes
Pancreas synthesizes and secretes trypsinogen, chymotrysinogen, carboxypeptidase, amylase, lipase
When during cell cycle does crossing over occur? Prophase 1 of Meiosis. Synapsis!
Primary spermatocyte diploid and 46 chromosomes
Transduction Genetic material transferred from one organism to another via a virus. The bacteriophage (virus) injects the DNA into the bacteria.
Transformation The cell transforms because it has uptaken foreign DNA and is expressing it.
Conjugation Temporary joining of two cells by a pilus
Purines Guanine and Adenine
What type of bonds between C-G, and A-T? C-G triple bond. A-T double bond.
Primary protein structure order of amino acids
Secondary protein structure the alpha helix or beta sheets that are held together by H bonds
Tertiary protein structure 3D shape of peptide chains
Quaternary protein structure multiple polypetide chains bound together
Where does post-transcriptional processing of RNA occur? In nucleus
A circular clockwise current carrying wire has what kind of magnetic field inside and outside the circle? Inside the circle, into the page. Outside the circle, out of the page.
A circular counterclockwise current carrying wire has what kind of magnetic field inside and outside the circle? Inside the circle, out of the page. Outside the circle, into the page.
√.04 = .2
sin = opposite / hypotenuse
torque = rFsinϑ, F = force, r = length of lever arm vector
Sound waves are... longitudinal and travel fastest in dense materials
Mechanical energy Sum of kinetic and potential energy
√(4.9 x 10^-7) When you have an odd NEGATIVE exponent, increase the number(move decimal) and exponent so that it is even. Then, take square root. √(49 x 10^-8) = (7 x 10^-4) *** note: doesnt work for positive exponents
Arrhenius Acid/Base Arrhenius Acid = H+ donor. Arrhenius Base = OH- donor
Bronsted Lowry Acid/Base Bronsted Acid = H+ donor. Bronsted Base = H+ acceptor
Formal charge = Group number - lone pairs - 1/2(bonding electrons)
Coordination number = The integer number of its nearest neighbors
Angiotensin II Stimulates release of aldosterone
∆G = = ∆H - T∆S =********* nFE where n = moles, F = 96,000 c/moles of e-, E = voltage(standard potential) of cell************* . . . = -RT ln Keq
1 Amp = 1 Coloumb / Second
Fermentation pyruvate + NADH + H+ → lactate + 4 ATP + NAD+ HOWEVER --> 2 of the 4 ATP is used up to convert NAD+ back to NADH
Glycolysis Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 P + 2 ADP → 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 ATP + 2 H+ + 2H2O NADH is recycled back to NAD+ by fermentation of pyruvate.
Glucagon Hormone that breaks glycogen down to glucose
ADH A peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and released by posterior pituitary to increase water resorption in COLLECTING TUBULES of kidneys
Catecholamines Fight or flight hormones: epinephrine & norepinephrine secreted by adrenal glands, and function in sympathetic nervous system
Steroid Hormones Come only from the adrenal cortex, gonads, or placenta. Steroid hormones are lipids and can diffuse through cell membrane and DIRECTLY REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION OF mRNA!! Adrenal cortex: cortisol & aldosterone. Gonads: estrogen. progesterone, testosterone
Peptide Hormones Come from anterior pituitary: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, Endorphins, GH ....Posterior pituitary - ADH, oxytocin ......Parathyroid - PTH ......Pancreas - glucagon, insulin ...require secondary messenger system cAMP
Tyrosine Hormones Adrenal medulla: epinephrine & norepinephrine.... can pass through cell membrane
Bacteria and red blood cells do not have... mitochondria and a nucleus
Hardy Weinberg Law p² + 2pq + q² = 1 AND p + q = 1.... NOTE: p² is the percent of homozygous dominant! so when using p + q, make sure you take square root
oncogene and proto-oncogene A gene that, once mutated, causes a normal cell to become cancerous. A proto-oncogene is a normal gene that can become an oncogene due to mutation.
Missense mutation Mutation in which one nucleotide is substituted for another resulting in an amino acid substitution.
Nonsense mutation Changes the amino acid codon to a stop signal
DNA is replicated (3 or 5 first) 5' to 3' whereas DNA polymerase lies down 3' to 5'
Hemoglobin - 4 (1 iron subunit + 1 oxygen) complexes
Phosphorylation Adds a phosphate group to a protein. Phosphorylation turns many protein enzymes on and off
Thymus gland T cells mature from T lymphocytes. Immune system function.
Frequency of oscillation in a pendulum F = 1/(2π) x (√(g/L))
The index of refraction is a ratio between... Speed of light in a vacuum / Speed of light in medium
EMF of a galvanic and electrolytic cell = Eº!!!!!! E(cathode) - E(anode). /// MUST be positive for a galvanic (voltaic) cell. Negative for an electrolytic cell.
PV = nRT, what is R? .08 OR 8 x 10^-2
A higher Eº means more positive = cathode = reduction
A lower Eº means more negative = anode = oxidation
Protein kinase A kinase enzyme causes phosphorylation by using ATP which gets converted to ADP.
Non-specific versus specific immune response Non-specific immune response = rxn is immediate (non-specific), and no memory component. Specific immune response - response is slower as it is pathogen and antigen specific, with memory components.
Allosteric site A site other than the active site
Sensory neuron vs Motor neuron Sensory neurons bring information to the central nervous system while motor neurons carry signals from CNS to cells
Melting point of hybrid DNA The more closely two strands match, the higher the melting point.
Nodes of ranvier Unmyelinated regions of axons that allow ion transfer
Schwann cell A cell that myelinates the nerve axon
Cerebellum Coordination, and sensory & motor control
Hypothalamus Links nervous system to endocrine system. Synthesizes hormones. Controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, circadian rhythms... etc
Ectoderm Gives rise to the nervous system, epidermis, lens of the eye, and inner ear.
Mesoderm Gives rise to the circulatory and digestive system
Endoderm Gives rise to the linings of the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory system
ACTH increases levels of androgens and cortisol
Auxotrophy Inability of an organism to synthesize a nutrient it needs for growth
Longitudinal versus transverse waves Longitudinal waves move parallel to direction of propogation, like sound. Transverse waves move perpendicular to direction of propogation, like light. LIGHT TRAVELS SLOWER in dense materials, where sound travels faster.
In laminar flow, velocity is fastest where? Pressure is greatest where? Velocity is fastest in the smallest area. Pressure is greatest in the largest area.
When you decrease pressure of a gas, the density decreases
For a sound wave, a change in velocity, changes the wavelength and NOT frequency
In both electrochemical cells, anions flow to the...? cations flow to the...? anions migrate to anode. cations migrate to cathode
the reducing agent undergoes oxidation.
vapor pressure, and do dissolved particles affect it? P = p1x + p2y ... where p1 = pressure of solute 1, x = mole fraction of 1, p2 = p of solute 2, y = mol fraction of 2 the pressure at which the gas is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid or solid forms. dissolved particles decrease vapor pressure
Which is a fish eye mirror convex
Voltage drop across a resistor is Calculate the current (i) for the circuit. Then for each resistor, find V according to circuit current i and individual resistor R. Therefore, for a 6 ohm resistor with a 2 amp current, the voltage drop is 12 volts.
Using dimensional analysis, how do you convert 60 km/hr to ? m/s 60 km/hr x 1,000 m/km x 1 hour/60 minutes x 1 minute/60 seconds. . . . . . the unit in the numerator must appear in denominator in the conversion
4N H3PO4 = ? M 4/3 Molarity
1m² = ? cm² 10,000 cm² ..... because 1 meter = 100 cm, therefore 1 meter² = 100² cm = 100x100 =10,000cm²
Prokaryotes have... no nucleus, no mitochondria! and no membrane bound organelles. and NO endoplasmic reticulum. prokaryotes are bacteria and archaea. they DO have a cell membrane and wall. They do have ribosomes.
How is mRNA transcribed from DNA? (direction, and what pairs with what) It binds in opposite direction. and C binds G. A binds U. T binds A. G binds C.
Chiral carbon Carbon bonded to 4 different substituents
Epimer and anomer Epimers are diastereomers (stereoisomers that arent enantiomers) that differ in only one stereogenic center. Anomers are a sugar type of epimer
∆U = ∆U = Q - W, where U = change in internal energy, Q = heat added to the system, W = work done by the system
How is chymotrypsin formed? Enteropeptidase in the intestine converts trysinogen to trypsin. Trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin.
Does Keq include solids, liquids, or gases? Just gases
Lens / Mirror pneumonic UV IR - Upright Virtual and Inverted Real
node versus anti-node node is where there is no amplitude. that point is not moving. anti-node is where there is maximum amplitude.
Brewster angle = angle of incidence
Autosomal dominant disease means... Heterozygous or homozygous dominant. Rr and RR. You only need one copy of the gene to have the disease.
Forces (Magnetic) F = iLBsinϑ and F = qvBsinϑ
How does boiling point vary with chain length and polarity? Increase polarity = increase BP. Increase chain length = increase BP.
Large Keq = favors forward reaction. SOLIDS do not show up in Keq.
Jello has _____ youngs modulus Jello has looooooooow youngs modulus
Beta-oxidation Break down of fats to provide energy
Henderson Hasselbach equation pH = pKa + log(conjugate base/acid).... IF IT SAYS BUFFER, USE THIS EQUATION!
All K's and rate constants vary with Temperature!! K only varies with temperature! As temperature increases, K increases.
log (1) = 0
log (3 x 10^4) = 4.6
Equivalence point = moles of base = moles of acid or m1v1 = m2v2
In an electrochemical cell, electrons flow from anode to cathode
In an electrolytic cell, the positive part of the battery is connected to... the anode (which is positive in the electrolytic cell)
Solubility(equation) = Solubility = K * partial pressure,.... where partial pressure = mole fraction * total pressure
Pipe with two open ends... pipe with a closed end: Open: λ = 2L/n, n=1,2,3... AAAANNNDD Closed: λ = 4L/n, n=1,3,5,7...
To calculate an elements hybridization Count the number of things its bonded to and subtract 1. For NH3, it would be sp3 because nitrogen is bound to three H's and 1 lone pair of electrons. 4-1 = 3
Hygroscopic A compound that absorbs moisture from atmosphere
Formula for the number of possible peptides that contain one each of n amino acids is... n!
What occurs when an electrochemical cell stops? Electron flow stop. Cell potential is zero. Equilibrium.
Strong Acids HCl H2SO4 HClO4 HNO3
Strong Bases NaOH KOH
Amide O=C-NR2
Imide O=C-N-C=O, N is between two ketones
Imine C=N-R
Immune system and interstitial fluid Immune system drains interstitial fluid.
Endocrine glands do not have.... Endocrine glands do not have ducts.
Largest and smallest atomic radius Largest atomic radius at bottom left. Smallest atomic radius at top right.
Acetylene H-C(triple)C-H
A drop in blood volume causes the heart to the heart rate increases during blood loss
Contraction of the atria is controlled by the sino-atrial node
Somatostatin Inhibits insulin glucagon in response to high blood glucose
Period of a mass on a string is T = 2π (√m/k)
Electronegativity Electronegativity is an atoms attraction for electrons
Voltage difference across terminals of a real battery V = ε - iR(int) ...... where ε = emf and Rint = internal resistance
Face centered cubic structure 14 atoms. One at each corner, and one in the center of each face (8 corners + 6 faces).
Simple cubic structure 8 atoms. One at each corner.
Ductus arteriosus Shunts blood from pulmonary artery to aorta
Red light wavelength 700 nm
The greater the number of particles in solution, the higher the boiling point and the _______ the melting point lower the melting point and higher the melting point.
Energy released as an electron moves from one level to another Energy = 1/n² - 1/n²
The greater the vapor pressure the greater the rate of evaporation
Electric Field Formula E = kQ/r^2, AND E = Voltage / Distance
Enol formation Enol form occurs when the ketone grabs a hydrogen from a neighbor methyl group (=O --> -OH)
When light travels from air (n=1) to water (n=1.5), the angle of refraction is larger or smaller than the angle of incidence? The angle of refraction is smaller because the n value is larger. Therefore, with largers n values, the light bends toward the normal.
Cell phases G0 = rest G1 = growth S = duplication of chromosomes G2 = more growth M = mitosis
Hydrostatic Pressure Formula Pressure(guage) = P0 + pgh...where P0 = atmospheric pressure(surface pressure), p = density, h = depth below surface
What and how does hydrostatic pressure work? The pumping force of the heart pushes water of out capillaries into the interstitial fluid.
Role of osmotic pressure in water in capillaries / interstitial fluid Because there is greater amounts of solutes in the capillary, the water wants to rush back into the capillary due to the capillaries high osmotic pressure.
Which is a better leaving group, F or I? Iodine is the best leaving group
The electron transport chain builds a... proton gradient across inner mitochondrial membrane releasing energy as ATP
Intermolecular forces Van der Waals, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding
Formular for stereoisomers in a molecule 2^n. n = # of chiral carbons
Do lighter or heavier gases diffuse faster? Lighter gases diffuse faster. Rate of diffusion A / Rate of diffusion B = (√mB/√mA)
Whats the difference between carbon 14 and carbon 12? 2 neutrons
Created by: 5523784
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