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General Chemistry

Compounds and Stoichiometry through Kinetics and Equilibrium

Percent Composition The percentage by mass (in amu) of the elements making up a compound.
Percent Yeild A ratio (calculated as a percentage) of the actual mass of product yielded to the theorectical yield of product mass.
Single displacement reaction A chemical reaction in which an atom or ion of one compound is replaced by another atom or ion (e.g., A + BC --> B + AC).
Theorectical Yield The expected amount of product yielded in a reaction according to reactants' stoichiometry
Activation Energy Often denoted by E(a), it is the energy barrier that must be overcome for a reaction to proceed.
Chemical Kinetics The study of reaction rates and the factors that affect them.
Collision Theory of Chemical Kinetics Theory stating that the rate of a reaction is drectly proportional to the number of collisions that take place between reactants per second.
Equilibrium A dynamic point reached by a reversible reaction in which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. There is no net change in the concentrations of the products and reactants being formed
Equilibrium Constant A ratio of the concentrations of the products to the concentrations of the reactants at the point of equilibrium, where each reactant and product in the expression is raised to the power of its stochiometric coefficient. Commonly denoted by K(eq).
Le Chatelier's Principle When a system in equilibrium is placed under one of several stressors, it will react in order to regain equilibrium.
Rate-Determining Step The slowest step in a reaction mechanism that determines the overall rate of the reaction.
Rate Law An experimentally determined mathematical expression showing the rate of a reaction as a function of the concentration of its reactants.
Reaction Mechanism A "play-by-play" showing the indicidual steps of a reaction, including the formation and destruction of any reaction intermediates that may occur.
Reaction Order The sum of the exponents in a rate law, where each exponent provides the reaction order with respect to its reactant.
Reaction Quotient A ratio of the concentrations of the products to the concentrations of the reactants at any point during the reaction aside from equilibrium, where each reactaant and product in the expression is raised to the power of its stoich. coef. Comm. denoted by Q
Reaction Rate The measure of how quickly reactants are consumed and products are formed, commonly expressed in terms of mol L(-1) s(-1).
Reversible Reaction A process that will proceed bidirectionally to form both products and reactant.
Transistion State A high energy complex in which old bonds are partially broken and new bonds are partially formed. Charges existing only prior to or after the formation of the complex are designated as partial charges.
Created by: sleik3