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Anatomy

Limb Development and Upper Limb Overview

QuestionAnswer
limb buds appear in the embryo at this week of gestation week 4
limb buds in the embryo consist of this lateral plate mesoderm, paraxial mesoderm, covered by ectoderm.
name the nerve roots for the upper limb C4-T2
Limb buds develop in the embryo due to the signaling of this structure apical ectodermal ridge (AER)
what is the basic process by which fingers and toes form? apoptosis. lack of this causes webbed fingers and toes.
what type of ossification occurs in limb development endochondral ossification
describe the two stages of endochondral ossification 1. development of the primary center of ossification 2. developement of the secondary centers of ossification on the sides. as you get blood supply, the growth occurs and the bone grows out.
describe the characteristics of the limbs that develop in each segment, there are dorsal and ventral groups separated by fascia and bone. there are also compartments with a specific innervation and blood supply.
describe the posterior and anterior compartments of limb development posterior: extensors, ABductors, supinators, lateral rotators. Anterior: flexors, ADductors, medial rotators, pronators.
describe how the limbs rotate during development the upper limbs rotate laterally ninety degrees, and the lower limb rotates medially ninety degrees
list the superficial veins in the arm cephalic vein laterally, basilic vein medially, joined by the median cubital vein.
describe the clinical significance of the median cubital vein it is where blood is drawn from
list the compartments of the shoulder girdle scapulohumoral, posterior axioappendicular, anterior axioappendicular
list the boundaries of the axillary region anterior: pectoral m. posterior: subscapularis m. medial: serratus anterior muscle lateral: intertuburcular sulcus.
what are the arteries, veins, nerves, etc located in the axillary compartment axillary artery, axillary vein, and brachial plexus
name the compartments of the arm posterior, anterior
what is the blood supply and innervation for the anterior arm blood supply: brachial artery. innervation: musculocutaneous nerve
what is the blood supply and innervation for the posterior arm blood supply: deep brachial artery innervation: radial nerve
name the boundaries of the cubital fossa medially: pronator teres laterally: brachioradialis top: line drawn between the medial and lateral epicondyles
list the contents going through the cubital fossa biceps brachii tendon, brachial artery, median nerve
what are the components of the forarm posterior, anterior
what is the innervation and blood supply of the posterior forarm innervation: radial nerve blood supply: posterior interosseous artery
what is the innervation and blood supply of the anterior forarm innervation: median nerve blood supply: radial and ulnar arteries
what are the boundaries of the carpal tunnel floor and walls: carpal bone roof: flexor retinaculum
what are the contents of the carpal tunnel tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus, flexor pollicis longus, and median nerve
what are the compartments of the hand hypothenar, thenar, central, Adductor, interosseous
what is the innervation and blood supply of the hand? innervation: mostly ulnar nerve some by median nerve blood supply: superficial and deep palmer arches
Created by: aferdo01