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What is characteristic of X-linked disorders? males have dx but females are carriers --> do not pass to offspring
heterochromatin condensed DNA
euchromatin loose DNA
Lyon's hypothesis One of the 2 X's in a female will be inactivated as a Barr body
A person with 2 barr bodies has ____ X chromosomes 3
Autosomal Dominant -single copy -do not skip generations -equal numbers of affected females and males -father to son transmission is observed
What is fitness defined by? REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS
directional selection selects for trait on one extreme
stabilizing selection selects for moderate trait, against extremes
disruptive selection selects for both extremes
Group selection natural selection acting on the group, not the individual
Altruism sacrifices fitness of individual for benefit of group
Evolutionary success frequency of alleles of an individual increased
Species (3) -be able to interbreed -be able to produce fertile, viable offspring -does this naturally
Are a horse and donkey same species? NO --> mule offspring is sterile
Speciation formation of a new species
polymorphism different forms of alleles / traits
adaptation genetic change in a population caused by natural selection
specialization adaptation of traits to better fill a niche
Inbreeding increases frequency of __ and decreases ___. homozygotes / heterozygotes
Why is inbreeding so bad? increases frequency of homozy. recessive detrimental alleles
Bottleneck effect severe reduction in population size (i.e. natural disaster)
genetic drift and when does the effect increase? random change in allele frequencies --> genetic drift increases as population size decreases
T / F: Bottlenecks increase the effect of genetic drift? TRUE
divergent evolution same lineage, evolving apart to be more different
Divergent evolution produces ___ structures. homologous
homologous structures structures that are embryologically similar but have different functions (i.e. whale flipper and human arm)
parallel evolution same lineage, evolving separately but using similar mechanisms
convergent evolution genetically unrelated species acquire same biological trait
analogous structures structures that do the same job but have different origins (i.e. bird wings and bee wings)
coevolution two species reciprocally affect each other's evolution (prey and predator)
parasitism one benefits, other harmed
commensalism one benefits, other unaffected
mutualism both species benefit
ontogeny vs. phylogeny -development through life of an organism -development through history of lineages as they change through time
Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny Theory This phrase suggests that an organism’s development will take it through each of the adult stages of its evolutionary history, or its phylogeny
Molecular Clock Theory -measure of evolutionary change over time at molecular level -specific DNA seq / px spontaneously mutate at constant rates -that rate can be used to estimate how long ago 2 organisms diverged from common ancestor
What are neutral mutation? random genetic drift mutations that are not acted on by natural selection
What is Oparin and Haldane's theory on origin of life? organic molecules created by atmospheric gases zapped by lightening --> fall into ocean to make primordial soup (C,H,N,O)
What experiment confirmed origin of life theory? Urey-Miller
RNA World Hypothesis RNA is precursor to current life because RNA can store genetic info and catalyze chemical rxns
protocells aggregates of RNA and px inside lipid envelopes
How did eukaryotes evolve? -endosymbiosis --> big cx engulfed a smaller cx
What are 2 types of endosymbiosis? -heterotrophs engulf mito -autotrophs engulf chloroplasts
How did prokaryotes evolve? stages anaerobic heterotrophs --> anaerobic autotrophs --> aerobics
What is a chordate? one of the phylums in the kingdom Animalia
What are features of a chordate? notochord, gill slits in embryo (pharyngeal pouches, branchial arches), dorsal nerve cord
What is a vertebrate vs. chordate? vertebrates are a subphylum of chordates
Chordates vs. vertebrates -all chordates have a notochord, dorsally located nerve -all vertebrates have a backbone
Are all vertebrates chordates? Are all chordates vertebrates? YES / NO
Notochord rigid rod present at some stage of development in all chordates
p + q = 1
Hardy Weinberg equation p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
5 assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg -large population (no genetic drift) -no mutation -no migration -random mating (no sexual selection) -all genes are equally successful at reproducing
What is a back-cross? mating btwn offspring and parent
What is a test-cross? Situation when you have a dominant phenotype (Aa or AA) --> cross with homozygous recessive aa
locus location of a gene on a chromosome
allele variant of a gene
Where do all alleles of the same gene exist? same locus
How many alleles does each gene hold? 2 - one from mom, one from dad
leakage gene flow from one species to another --> concern for antibiotic resistance
gene pool all of the alleles in a population
penetrance frequency genotype will result in phenotype (whether you have it or not)
expressivity to what degree a penetrant gene is expressed
When does tetrad formation occur? meiosis I
In meiosis, are the daughter cells identical to parent cell? NO
What does meiosis produce? haploid (n) daughter cells
the law of _______( segregation or independent assortment) is dependent on the random arrangement of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate during Meiosis I. independent assortment --> sometimes mom's chromo is on left, sometimes it's on rightW
The law of_____ ( segregation or independent assortment) is dependent on the separation of members of homologous pairs. segregation
What is the site of crossing-over called? When does chiasma occur? chiasma / tetrad formation
What lines up during meiosis I? Mitosis? homologous chromosomes / sister chromatids
How many recombinants does a single crossover create? 2 / 4
Where are all of the sex-linked alleles located? x chromosome
cytoplasmic inheritance inheritance of things other than genomic DNA --> all cellular organelles such as mito are inherited from mother
mitochondria inheritance is from? mother
inversion mutation stretch of DNA breaks off and reattaches in opposite orientation
addition / insertion mutation extra base is added to DNA sequence
What to addition / deletion mutations create? frameshift mutation
translocation mutation stretch of DNA breaks off and reattaches somewhere else
inborn errors of metabolism genetic dx resulting in faulty metabolism --> PKA where ppl can't metabolize Phe
Are all mutagens carcinogens? Are all carcinogens mutagens? NO / MOSTLY YES
some cancer can be mitogens, what is a mitogen? increase mitosis
carcinogen vs. mutagen -mutagen = causes mutation -carcinogen = causes mutation that causes cancer
vestigial structures remnants of organs that have lost ancestral fxns
Do species, individuals, or populations evolve? populations
Does chordate mean having a backbone? NO --> bilateral symmetry
All vertebrates belong to what phylum? chordata
r-selection produce large number of offspring that mature rapidly with littler or no parental care
k-selection small brood size with slow maturing offspring and strong parental care
adaptive radiation single ancestral species gives rise to a number of different species
What carries out long-term evolutionary changes? natural selection
coacervates colloidal droplets made of polypeptides, nucleic acids, polysaccharides --> first cx thought to evolved from this cx type
prezygotic isolating mechanisms vs. postzygotic -prevent zygote formation completely -offspring are inviable
inclusive fitness number of alleles organism passes on to next generation
What ultimately creates evolution? changing gene frequency
How to calculate the number of possible gametes for AaBbCc? 2^n (n =3)
Why does inbreeding reduce fitness? increase incidence of expression of deleterious recessive traits
What organisms fall under eukaryotes? animls, plants, fungi, protozoans
Which organisms fall under prokaryotes? bacteria (kingdom monera)
What are simplest eukaryotes? protists
Some characteristics of x-linked recessive dx? -more common in males -skip generations -NO father-son transmission
What does the Hardy-weinberg equilibrium oppose? intro of new alleles into a population
Gram positive appear ___ after staining. Gram negative appear ____. blue / pink
Where do sperm undergo maturation? What is that analogous to in a female? epididymis / ovary
Characteristics of yeast cells membrane-bound organelles, chitin wall
What is the smallest and achiral a.a.? glycine
What is the imino acid? proline --> helix breaker
What a.a. can form disulfide bonds? cysteine
Background extinction vs. mass extinction -background = steady loss -mass = abrupt loss
Founder effect entire population gene pool is based on genes of individuals that founded population
What is estrogen synthesized from? testosterone
Generation time avg. amount of time btwn appearances of 2 successive generations (i.e. parent and offspring)
What does LH bind to in males? leydig cells --> stimulate testosterone release --> FSH
all bacteria require ____ for growth and reproduction carbon
autotrophic bacteria bacteria that get carbon from CO2
heterotrophic bacteria bacteria that derive carbon from organic nutrients like sugar
cyanobacteria use sunlight to produce sugars from CO2
What eukaryotic organelles are derived from endosymbiotic bacteria? mito and chloroplasts
Rank severity of damage: nonsense, silent, missense nonsense > missense > silent
Where is rRNA produced? nucleolus
What is the largest organelle in the cell? nucleus
How many sets of tumor suppressor genes does each person have? 1
Human diet consist mostly of what type of sugar? sucrose = glucose + fructose
Do erythrocytes have organelles? NO
Where do erythrocytes get ATP? cytoplasm and cx membrane supplies erythrocytes
population group of interbreeding individuals of same species isolated from similar groups of same species
fundamental niche potential conditions under which an organism can survive
realized niche conditions individuals actually use to survive
Are analogous structure evolutionary related? NO
Type A blood makes antibodies against? Type B blood
When a population undergoes bottleneck, what is genotype of population? homozygous
High degree of phenotypic plasticity? environmental factors influence phenotype
Created by: 507935299
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