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HAZMAT Tech 1 - Det

HAZMAT Tech 1 - Detection Equipment Capabilities, Limitations, and uses

Types of monitors for Corrosivity pH pH probe meters and pH paper
Types of monitors for Flammability CGI, Multi-Gas Monitor, Photoionization detectors (PID), Flame ionization (FID)
Types of monitors for Oxidation Potential Oxygen Meters and Photoionization detectors
Types of monitors for Oxygen deficiency Oxygen Meters and Photoionization detectors
Types of monitors for Pathogenisity Biological Immunoassay, indicators, DNA Fluoroscopy, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Hand held assay
Types of monitors for Radioactivity ANVDR2, Geiger Counter, ANDPDR77, Dosimeter
Types of monitors for Toxic Levels Photoionization detectors, Flame ionization detector, Infrared Spectrophotometers and Detector tubes
Bio Assay (hand held assay) Capabilities Tests for anthrax, ricin, botulinum toxin, plague, tularemia, brucella, and orthopox, Quick and accurate tests that can be used on-site and in the laboratory
Bio Assay (hand held assay) Limitations False negatives or false positives, Porous surface could hinder effectiveness
Bio Assay (hand held assay) Use Rapid field detection of bio warfare agents by detecting specific antibodies
Colorimetric detector tubes Capabilities Detects specific gases and vapors
Colorimetric detector tubes Limitations Not quantitative results, different manufacturer’s tubes not interchangeable, false positives, interpreting color change may be difficult, tubes have specific shelf life, Response times may vary for different materials
Colorimetric detector tubes Use Different colored tubes react with material being tested
pH meters Capabilities Measures acids and bases
pH meters Limitations probes must be rinsed in distilled water before and after calibration, close proximity to material, can be affected by oils or other contaminants
pH meters Use probe inserted into materials and pH is indicated on display screen
pH paper/ strips Capabilities Chemical reaction changes the color of the detection paper, Acids are normally shades of red/ purple and bases are shades of blue
pH paper/ strips Limitations false positives, must have accurate color perception
Reagents Capabilities Substance or solution combined with a material causing a chemical reaction
Reagents Limitations For specific chemical and biological materials
Reagents Use Any substance used in a chemical reaction, chemical added to bring about a chemical change
Test Strips Capabilities test for chemical agents,
Test Strips Limitations readings need to be verified with another detector
Test Strips Use specifically designed reagent strips that produce visible color change
Combustible gas indicator Capabilities wheat stone bridge in id process, designed to measure LEL, and concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in atm
Combustible gas indicator Limitations intended for normal atmospheres, requires warm-up period, does not identify other hazards such as toxicity, filament can be damaged by acidic gases and silicone
Combustible gas indicator Use operates by catalytic combustion where sample is drawn across platinum catalyst (wheatstone bridge)
DNA fluoroscopy Capabilities Identifies specific DNA sequences enabling it to detect and identify different biological agents, quantitative monitoring
DNA fluoroscopy Limitations several methods to determine the presence and identify on scene best if done in lab
DNA fluoroscopy Use to determine pathogenicity on scene
Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Capabilities oxygen deficient and enriched atmosphere, measures percentage of oxygen in atms
Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Limitations some materials indicate a high or normal level with actual atmosphere is deficient, extreme cold effects meter, does not indicate gas toxicity and gas that is replacing oxygen
Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Use Air diffuses into the sensor, oxygen reacts with electrolytes in a cell creating a current
Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Capabilities Measures concentration of Carbon Monoxide
Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Limitations limited to measure only carbon monoxide, may not indicate an area is oxygen deficient
Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Use Warns responders of possible ongoing combustion
Flame ionization detector Capabilities Tests for organic compounds Hydrocarbons such as butane or hexane
Flame ionization detector Limitations FID destroys most or all sample it is detecting
Flame ionization detector Use best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Capabilities Used to Analyze the molecular and ionic composition of chemical compounds, the gold standard for substance identification, performs library search for false positives
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Limitations High cost, false positives and negatives
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Use Unique analytical instrument housing the same hardware as laboratory instruments, gas chromotography, mass spectrometry and vacuum tech allows for operations at point of release
Infrared spectroscopy Capabilities (hazmat id) Tests for solids, liquids and pastes, organic compounds, inorganic oxides, ect
Infrared spectroscopy Limitations Cannot identify bio agents only gives proteins, metals and non-metals and simple ionic salts
Infrared spectroscopy Use Chemicals absorb infrared light and the pattern of absorption is unique to each chemical
Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Capabilities (ICAM) Capable of detecting and identifying very low concentrations of chemicals based upon the differential migration of gas phase ions through a homogeneous electric field
Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Limitations There are a number of interferents that can have drift times similar to different chemical agents that can result in false-positives
Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Use is a point detection system which uses either a radioactive source or corona discharge to drive the sample test process
Metal oxide sensor Capabilities devices that translate the changes in the concentration of gaseous chemical species into electronic signals Quantifying compounds in concentration below less than one ppm
Metal oxide sensor Limitations Can only detect a small number of chemicals, and requires warm up times
Metal oxide sensor Use designed to detect specific chemicals
Photoionization detectors Capabilities organic and some inorganic gases and vapors ,detects total concentration of numerous organic and inorganic gases and vapors. Increasingly used for both emergency response and remedial operations. Can be used to measure toxic exposure
Photoionization detectors Limitations Reading is dependent upon calibration (isobutylene), does not detect methane
Photoionization detectors Use Sample is exposed to ultraviolet light that ionizes the sample Ions are collected amplified, and produce a current which is read on a display as a total organic vapors
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Capabilities a highly sensitive technique by which minute quantities DNA or RNA sequences are enzymatically amplified to reach a threshold signal for detection
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Limitations Cannot differentiate between live and dead organisms, high cost
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Uses Applications for PCCR include molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, archeology, forensics, amplification of unknown sequences ect
Radiation detection and measurement instruments Capabilities Used to monitor Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutron particles, X-ray (number of different probes)
Radiation detection and measurement instruments Limitations Most common instruments measure gamma rays and will detect ,not measure other. No response does not equal clean, electromagnetic field gives false positives, measurements can be affected by wind and shielding
Radiation detection and measurement instruments Uses Ionization detectors which collect and count ions electronically, measures individual exposure, readings can provide in a number of formats, lowest level of detection is 0.01mR/hr
Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Capabilities rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as explosives, unknown chemicals, narcotics, or tics, point and shoot operation
Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Limitations do not use external laser on flammable, explosive materials or dark surfaces
Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Uses Product can be analyzed in glass vials or plastic bags, greatly reducing the possibility of evidence corruption, cross contamination or risk to response personnel
Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Capabilities able to detect the presence of blister and nerve agents at same time
Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Limitations Most units must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft tip stylus, pen won’t work, not completely sealable
Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Uses Sensor application include all areas of sensing (chem, optical, thermal, pressure, acceleration, torque and bio)
Wet Chemistry Capabilities Chemistry generally done in the liquid phase, bench chemistry
Wet Chemistry Limitations limited field use, requires special training, beakers and flasks
Wet Chemistry Uses chemical measurements, such as change in color, but often more quantitative chemical measurements
Created by: woodyb42



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