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HAZMAT Tech 1 - Defs

HazMat Tech 1 - Definitions

QuestionAnswer
Acid any substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour test, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. ph less then 7 in its standard shape.
Caustic Capable of burning,corroding, dissoliving, or eating away by chemical action. ph greater then 7 in its standard shape.
Air reactivity Materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air.
Auto-refrigeration A phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release(boiling) of a liquified gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid stae through rapid cooling.
Biological agents Producing disease through living microorganisms that can mutate and become toxins are more deadly
Biological toxins Toxins can be small molecules,peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with an absorption by body tissue. (a) risk Affects human health in a variety of ways ranging from allergic reactions to death.
Blood agents A chemical compound including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.
Boiling point Temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a gas occurs. At this temperature, the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor.
Catalyst A substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected.
Chemical change Changes that take place on the molecular level. A chemical change produces a new substance.
Chemical interactions Caused when 2 or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible.
Chemical mixture Separate elements that bond together to form compound mixture, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner.
Concentration-When dealing with corrosives The amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present.
Critical Temperature The minimum temp at which a gas can be liquified no matter how much pressure is applied =. A gas cannot be liquified above its critical temp.
Critical pressure The Pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state.
Dissociation The separation of a substance into 2 or more simpler substances, or of a molecule into atoms or ions, by the action of heat or a chemical process. Dissociation is usually reversible.
Corrosivity A measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular enviroment.
Dose The concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period.
Dose response The biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. The degree of harm is directly related to the dose(time and amount) and its impact on bodily functions.
Expansion ratio The amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temp.
Flash Point The minimum temp at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will nit continue to burn.
Fire Point The temp at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning
Flammable(explosive) range The difference between the upper and lower flammable limits.
Lower explosive limit(LEL) The minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. Also known as to lean to burn.
Upper explosive limit (UEL) the maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate in the presence of a flame. Also known as to rich to burn.
Half-life The period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
Halogenated Hydrocarbons They are often more toxic than naturally occurring organic chemicals. They decomposed into smaller, more harmful elements when exposed to high temps for a long period of time.
Inhibitor Added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation.
Ignition(auto-ignition) temp The temp at which a material(solid,liquid or gas) will self ignite and sustain combustion in air without a external spark or flame
Instability Materials that decompose , polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable.
Ionic and covalent compounds Materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons.
Irritants (riot agents) they cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim,
Maximum Safe Storage Temp(MSST) The max temp that an organic peroxide may be stored safely.
Melting point The temp at which a solid becomes a liquid allowing it to spread more readily.
Freezing Point The temp in which a liquid converts to a solid.
Miscibility Refers to the tendency or ability of 2 or more liquids to form a uniform blend dissolve in each other.
Nerve agents Substances that interfere with the central nervous syatem.
Organic Pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon.
Inorganic Composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable: not having the organized structure of living things. Inorganic material lacks carbon chains.
Oxidation potential The combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard.
Persistence Refers to a chemical ability to remain in the environment. The more persistent, the greater the propensity for it to remain harmful over a period of time.
ph The numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion as related to acidity or alkalinity.
Physical change The process when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical properties.
Physical state(solid,Liquid,gas) The characteristic form of a material at ambient temps.
Polymerization Any process in which relatively small molecules,called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer.
Radioactivity Spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus.
Alpha Positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested.
Beta Can Damage skin tissue, and they can damage internal organs if they enter the body. Full protective clothing including positive pressure SCBA will protect.
Gamma Causes skin burns and can severely injure internal organs; therefore protective clothing is inadequate in preventing this radiation from harming the body. The most dangerous type!
Reactivity A substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change, for example self-reaction polymerization, or violent reaction.
Water reactivity Describes the sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement.
Riot control agents (sometimes referred to as tear gas) are chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes,mouth,throat,lungs,and skin.
Saturated hydrocarbons hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons. (Methane,Butane)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons Materials that have at least one multiple bond between 2 carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous
Aromatic hydrocarbons materials that contain the benzene ring which is formed ny 6 carbon atoms and contains double bonds. Its greatest hazard is toxicity. 6 sided ring.
Self-accelerating decomposition temp when this temp is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide, irreverisble decomposition will begin.(a) this reaction can be violent, usually rupturing the vessel ot container.
Solubility The ability of a substance to form a solution with water can be important when determining control measures. For example gas is insoluble, while anhydrous ammonia is soluble.
Solution Mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved.
Slurry Pourable mixture of solid and a liquid.
Specific gravity The weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water.
Strength The concentration of of a solution. In corrosives, strength refers to the degree of ionization of an acid or base in water.
Sublimation The ability of a substance to change from a solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase.
Temp of product Influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product.
Toxic products of combustion Byproducts of the combustion process that are harmful to humans. Some materials generate more highly toxic gases than others do: therefore, appropriate levels of protective clothing and equipment must be used to counter them.
Vapor density Weight of vapor compared to air.
Vapor pressure The force exerted by the gas or vapor released by a liquid or solid substance in a closed container or space.
Vesicants(blister agents) These agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes,hours or days.
Viscosity Measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. During an incident this will affect the flow away from a leaking container, expanding the endangerment area.
Volatility Ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state. During an incident this will affect the dispersment in air and expand the endangered area.
Counts per minuter (CPM) and kilocounts per minute (kcpm) Measurements of radioactivity. It is the number of atoms ina given quantity of radioactivity material that are detected to have decayed in 1 minute.
Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) value This is the maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairment.
Incubation period The latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms.
Infectious dose The amount of a pathogen necessary to manifest it's pathogenicity . It is dependent on pathogenic variables such as health, gender, predisposition, and several others.
Lethal concentration(LC 50) The amount of material in air that is expected to kill 50 percent. Inhalation.
Lethal dose(LD 50) Causes the death of 50 percent by any route other then inhalation.
Parts per million(PPM) it denotes the number units of one substance relative to one million units.
Parts per billion(PPB) The number of units of one substance relative to one billion units of another substance.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) (OSHA) limits on the amount or concentration of a airborn substance. The time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8 hour workday and a 40 hour work week, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day without adverse effect.
Radiation absorbed dose (RAD) Equals the energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material(an erg is a work unit). Obsolete equal to 1 centigray, 1 rad is equal to 10 milligray and 100 rads are equal to 1 Gv.
Roentgen equivalent Man(REM); Millirem(mrem) An international unit of the of the intensity of xrays and gamma rays. 1 rad
Threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C) This is the maximum concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed without risk of injury and the exposure to higher concentrations should not occur.
Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit(TLV-STEL) This the maximum average concentration, averaged over a 15 minute period, to which healthy adult can safely exposed for up to 15 minutes continuously. Exposure should not occur more then 4 times a day with at least 1 hour between exposures.
Threshold limit value time weighted average(TLV-TWA) The maximum concentration averaged over 8 hours, to which a healthy adult can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week.
Created by: woodyb42