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A+P CH 1 & 4-7

4 types of tissue epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural
tissues collection of cells and cell products that perform specific functions
epithelia tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities and tubular structures, and serves essential functions
characteristics of epithelia tissue cell junctions, apical and basal surfaces, attachment, avascularity, and regeneration
gap junctions neural
synapse gap
protein tissues need to heal
microvilli increase cell surface area and important for absorption and secretion
cilia important for movement
mitochondria cristae, power house of body that utilize energy
germinative cells, stem cells start out with no specific purpose
epithelia renewal replaced by division of germinative cells
classes of epithelia based on layers simple or stratified epithelium and based on shape squamous,cuboidal, or columnar
simple epithelium single layer of cells
stratified epithelium several layers of cells
simple squamous epithelium ventral (front) cavities, thoracic and abdominal
pseudo- false
transitional epithelium allows stretching of tissue
endocrine glands release hormones into interstitial fluid and no ducts goes directly into blood stream
exocrine glands produce secretions onto epithelial surfaces and goes through ducts
serous glands watery secretions
mucous glands secrete mucins
mixed exocrine glands both serous (watery) and mucous
oid/o looks like
the matrix like a screen made of extracellular components of connective tissues
connective tissue proper loose and dense fibers
fluid connective tissues blood and lymph
supporting connective tissue cartilage and bone
cells in connective tissue fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, and mast cells
macrophages fixed and free and job is cleanup
adipocytes fat cells
adipo- fat
mast cells mobile connective tissue near blood filled with chemicals released when tissues are damaged
connective tissue fibers collagen, reticular, and elastic
physiology study of functions
viscous how syrupy something is
levels of organization from molecules to complete organism chemical (or molecular), cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism
negative feedback temperature regulation
positive feedback blood clot formation
metabolism all chemical activity in the body
tissue type of muscle
heart organ
human body has 11 organ systems integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphoid, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
supine face up
prone face down
ventral body cavity thoracic and abdominopelvic
thoracic body cavity heart and lungs
pericardium serous membrane
lateral across thru the midline
transverse section cut thru body that passes perpendicular to lung axis and cuts body into superior and inferior positions
sagittal plane divides body into left and right portions
mediastinum region between heart and pericardium
diaphragm,flat muscular sheet divide ventral body cavity into a superior __cavity and inferior __ cavity thoracic, abdominopelvic
proton located __ of atom center
principles elements in human body oxygen, O carbon, C hydrogen, H nitrogen, N calcium, Ca phosphorus, P potassium, K sodium, Na chlorine, Cl magnesium, Mg sulfur, S iron, Fe and iodine, I
acid (H+ donor) any substance that breaks apart to release hydrogen ions
another name for platelets thrombocytes
pH body fluid
AB + CD --> AD + CB exchange reaction
A + B <==> AB reversible reaction
bones store calcium
permeability property that determines which substances can enter and exit cytoplasm
diffusion movement of solid object from high concentration into low concentration of liquid
crenation shrinking of red blood cells
facilitated diffusion, passive carrier-mediated transport allows selective item thru then closes door behind and door opens in front
lacunae chambers
pinocytosis cell drinking, fluid
types of cartilage hyaline, elastic, fibrous
bone or osseous tissue resists shattering
membranes physical barriers
mucous membranes line passageways
areolar tissue surrounds breast
mitosis 1. interphase, resting 2.prophase, centriole split 3.metaphase, move to center 4.anaphase, move to opposite sides and 5.telephase, cleave
DNA nucleotide sequence CTC ATA CGA TTC AAG TTA would have what followin nucleotide sequence complementary in mRNA GAG UAU GCU AAG UUC AAU
solvent liquid
synovial fluid lubricant
isotonic just adding volume
hypotonic water into cell
hypertonic water out of cell
skeletal muscle voluntary and striated (comes in layers)
cardiac muscle specialized both striated and smooth and involuntary, intercalated discs
smooth muscle visceral (organs) and involuntary
muscle tissue and has 3 types skeletal, cardiac, and smooth specialized for contraction and produces all body movement
neural tissue stimuli and response
central nervous system brain and spinal cord
neurons nerve cells
neuroglia supporting cells
response to tissue injury inflammation and regeneration
inflammatory response swelling, warmth, redness, and pain
adema swelling
neuron axon, cell body, and dendrites
histamine cause local blood vessels to dilate
apo- from
dendron tree
desmos ligament
holos entire
hyalos glass
krinein to separate
lacus lake
meros part
pleura rib
sistere to set
squama plate or scale
vas vessel
ab- from
amphi- on both sides
blast precursor
clast break
concha shell
corona crown
dia- through
duco to lead
gennan to produce
gomophosis bolting together
in- into
infra- beneath
lacrimae tears
lamella thin plate
malleolus little hammer
meniscus crescent
septum wall
stylos pillar
supra- above
teres cylindrical
trabecula wall
trochlea pulley
vertere to turn
skeletal system 5 functions support, storage of minerals, blood cell production, protection, and leverage (force of motion)
diaphysis middle of long bone, bone shaft
epiphysis top of end of long bone
periosteum pertaining to surrounding the bone
compact bone hard part of bone gives bones strength
osteocytes mature cell that maintain normal bone structure
osteoclasts release calcium into body and bone-dissolving cells
osteoblasts regenerate or produce new bone cells, bone-producing cells
3 types of cells in bone osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts
ossification process of replacing other tissues with bone
bone development bones grow until about age 25
clavicle collarbone
mandible lower jaw
normal bone growth require nutrition and hormonal factors
fracture hematoma large blood clot
callum hard skin
process projection or bump
ramus extension of bone making angle
trochanter large rough projection
fossa shallow depression
sulcus narrow groove
foramen hole
fissure long hole that opens
condyle where round process is
scapula shoulder blade
axial skeleton skull, ears, neck, ribs, sternum, and vertebrae
appendicular skeleton skull, thorax, and vertebral column
radius thumb side of arm just below elbow
metacarpal hand bones
tarsal ankle
metatarsal foot bones
humerus long arm bone, upper arm bone
femur long leg bone
coxal hip bone
tibia chin bone
fibula just above ankle
frontal forehead
occipital bone back of head
coronal suture binding line of frontal to parietal bone
sphenoid bone beside eyes
maxilla upper jaw which is above lips and below nose
zygomatic bone cheek bones
lacrimal bone base of eyes
sinus purposes makes skull lighter, gives resonance to voice, and protects respiratory system
vertebral column thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx
cervical vertebra top of spine
thoracic vertebra middle of spine
lumbar vertebra bottom of spine
thoracic vertebra has 12 vertebra
there are 24 ribs and come in pairs of 12
true ribs 1-7 connect directly to sternum through cartilage
false ribs 8-12 connect to sternum through cartilage above true rib 7
floating ribs 11 & 12 dont connect to sternum
xiphoid process little hanging bone on front of chest
manubrium small bone at top on front of chest
pectoral girdle connects only at manubrium
acromial process feel on arm its just below bony acromial end (end of arm bone at top)
antebrachium forearm
pollex thumb
ilium crest at top of hip bone
ischium bottom of hip bone (part you sit on)
pubis symphysis cartilage holding sides of pubis bone together
female pelvis round and male pelvis oval
talus carries weight of leg
hallux big toe
articulations, joint where two bones meet
synarhrosis immovable joint
amphiarhtrosis slightly moveable joint
diarhtrosis freely moveable joint
atlas first cervical vertebrae, skull sits on
axis second cervical vertebrae
ball and socket joints shoulder joints
gliding motion bones slide past each other
flexion reducing angle between two bones
extension increases angle between two bones
abduction away from midline, raising arm laterally
adduction toward midline
rotation movement from right to left
eversion pointing foot to side
protraction pushing forward and then backward
atomic number number of protons
covalent bond sharing of electrons
ionic bond loss or gain of electrons
catabolism decomposition
anabolism synthesis
enzyme catalyst
buffer stabilize pH
organic compounds carbs, lipids, and proteins
inorganic compounds water and salts
in atoms protons and neutrons found only in nucleus
the number and arrangement of electrons in an atom's outer electron shell determines chemical properties
the bond between Na and Cl in the compound NaCl is ionic bond
7 major functions performed by proteins support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic reaction, coordination and control, and defense
active transport have to have energy but dont rely on solute or gradient
ion pumps carrier proteins that actively transport and important for homestasis
organelles, little organs perform specific functions essential to normal cell structure
flagella move cell through surrounding fluid
filtration hydrostatic pressure
osmosis movement of water
vesicular transport endocytosis and exocytosis
cytoskeleteon internal protein framework
ribosomes manufacture proteins
lysosomes digestive enzymes
nucelus control center for cell operations
nucleoli synthesize components of ribosomes
proteins in plasma membrane may function as receptors, channels, carriers, enzymes, anchors, and identifiers
___ion concentrations in extracellular fluids, and ___ion concentrations are high in cytoplasm sodium, potassium
translation construction of a functional protein using information provided by mRNA strand
4 major transport mechanisms substances use to get in and out of cells diffusion, filtration, carrier-mediated transport, and vesicular transport
diffusion is important in body fluids because this process eliminates local concentration gradients
when placed in a ___solution, a cell will loose water through osmosis. This process results in the ___of red blood cells hypertonic, crenation
most abundant connections between cells in the superficial layers of the skin desmosomes
3 major types of of cartilage hyaline, elastic, and fibrous
3 cell shapes making up epithelial tissue cuboidal, squamos, and columnar
gap junction interlocking of membrane proteins
tight junction intercellular connection
germinative cells repair and renewal
holocrine secretion destroys gland cell
endocrine secretion hormones
ligament bone-to-bone attachment
tendon muscle-to-bone attachment
in body surfaces where mechanical stresses are severe the dominant epithelium is striated squamous epithelium
the tissue that contains a fluid ground substance is connective
the primary function of the serous membrane in the body is to minimize friction between opposing surfaces
large muscle fibers that are multinucleated, striated, and voluntary are found in skeletal muscle tissue
intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue
4 basic tissue types epithelia, connective, muscle, and neural
skeletal muscle contains connective tissues, blood vessels and nerves, and skeletal muscle tissue
isometric contraction contraction in which tension rises but resistance does not move
epimysium surrounds muscle
fascicle muscle bundle
endomysium surrounds muscle fiber
motor end plate binds ACh
transverse tubule conducts actin potentials and allow entire muscle fiber to contract simultaneously
actin thin filaments
myosin thick filaments
extensor of knee quadricep muscles
sacromeres contractile units
recruitment multiple motor units
muscle tone resting tension, firmness of muscle at rest
white muscles fast fibers
flexor of leg hamstring muscles
red muscles slow fibers
hypertrophy enlargement, muscle gain
function of synovial fluid nourish chondrocytes, provide lubrication, and absorb shock
unpaired bone vomer
abduction and adduction always refer to movements of the appendicular skeleton
cribriform plate olfactory nerves
ball-and-socket joints hip and shoulder
hinge joints elbow and knee
while an individual is in the anatomical position, the ulna lies medial to the radius
at the glenoid cavity the scapula articulates with the proximal end of the humerus
osteons basic functional units of mature compact bone
diarthroses joint typically located at tend of long bones
standing on tiptoe is example of plantar flexion
skeletol bones store energy reserves as lipids in areas of yellow marrow
communications for skeletal system endocrine glands slow and nervous system fast
3 ear bones in each ear stapes (stirrup), incus (anvil), and malleous (hammer)
muscle tissue skeletal (voluntary and striated), cardiac (involuntary and specialized), and smooth aka visceral (involuntary and smooth)
skeletal muscle performs 5 primary functions movement of skeleton, maintain posture, support soft tissues, guard entrances and exits, maintain body temp
sarcolemma cell membrane of a muscle fiber
terminal cisternae terminal (end) cistern (container to collect), where things collect
stimuli --> depolarization = movement or contraction then repolarization = normalization or rest
ACh acetylcholine, neurotransmitter
3 phases of a twitch latent (calcium ions releases), contraction (calcium ions binds), and relaxation
wave summation increasing tension or summation (top portion) before end of relaxation, continuing contractions
complete tetanus relaxation phase of muscle is completely eliminated
iso- same
normal heart rate 60-100 times a minute
origin muscle attachment that remains fixed
insertion muscle attachment that moves
action what joint movement a muscle produces
prime mover (agonist) main muscle in action
synergy in addition to
mental, genio- chin
axillary armpit
antecubital in front of elbow
antebrachial forearm
pollex thumb
popliteal back of knee
crural leg
femur thigh
trunk thorax, mammary, abdomen, umbilical, and pelvis
buccal neck
sternocleidomastoid from clavicles to sternum
peritoneum pelvic floor
kagel exercises start and stop urine
pectoralis minor anterior surface of ribs 3-5
trapezius muscle above clavicle, connects to it and in front of scapula (acromion and scapular spine)
deltoid muscle of shoulder blade (acromion and adjacent scapular spine)
latissimus dorsi spinous processes of lower thoracic vertebrae, ribs, and lumbar vertebrae
pectoralis major cartilage of ribs 2-6 muscle next to sternum and clavicle, used for injections
biceps brachii on scapula, short head from coracoid process (lower connection to shoulder)and long head from supraglenoid tubercle
triceps brachii superior, posterior, and lateral margins of humerus and scapula (above biceps)
gluteus maximus, dorsal iliac crest of ilium, sacrum, and coccyx
gluteus medius, ventral anterior iliac crest and lateral surface of ilium
gluetus minimus lateral surface of ilium, muscle below hip bone
vastus lateralis anterior and inferior greater tochanter of femur along linea aspera, injection primarily in children
surface anatomy study of general form and superficial markings
gastrocnemius femoral condyles, calf muscle
bruit whooshing sound
ventral belly side
coronal plane divides head into front and back
dorsal cavities cranial and spinal
ventral cavity thoracic, upper abdominal, and lower abdominal or thoracic and pelvic
3 serous membranes pleural (lungs), pericardium (heart), and peritoneum (pelvic)
Created by: brookelily