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Chapter 1 A&P

Autopsy postmortem dissection
Palpation feel body surface with hands
Auscultation listen to body sounds with a stethoscope
Percussion tap on body surface and listen to
Imaging non-invasive visualization of internal structures
Type of Imaging (X-ray) Radiography
Type of Imaging (CT scan) Computed tomography
Type of Imaging (Ultrasound) Sonography
Type of Imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging
Type of Imaging (PET) Positron emission tomography
Integumentary system skin and related structures
Skeletal system bones and associated structures
Muscular system skeletal muscles
Nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves & special sense organs
Endocrine system hormone producing glands & cells
Cardiovascular system blood, heart & blood vessels
Lymphatic system lymph fluid and vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils
Respiratory system lungs & airways
Digestive system gastrointestinal tract & associated secretory organs
Urinary system kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra
Reproductive system gonads and associated structures
Metabolism sum of all chemical processes in body
catabolism breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
anabolism building more complex molecules from simpler ones
Growth increase in body size due to increased cell size or number or increased material between cells
Reproduction formation of new cells or production of new individuals
Movement facilitated motion at any structural level
Responsiveness ability to detect and respond to changes in internal or external environment at any structural level
Differentiation development of cells from a general structure to a specialized structure and function
Homeostasis equilibrium in body’s internal environment; maintained within a narrow range compatible with life (physiological limits)
Body fluids watery solutions within and surrounding body cells
Intracellular fluid (ICF) body fluids within cells
Extracellular fluid (ECF) body fluids outside cells
interstitial fluid body fluid between cells
compartmentalized fluids blood plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, aqueous humor
Regulation of Homeostasis constant disruptions from external and internal environment necessitate regulatory mechanisms to restore balance
autoregulation cells, tissues, organ systems regulate themselves
extrinsic regulation nervous and endocrine regulation
Feedback Systems cyclical system which monitors a controlled condition, evaluates its status, and effects a response if needed, followed by remonitoring, reevaluation, etc.
3 components of a feedback system Receptor, Control center, Effector
Receptor structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to control center
Control center evaluates whether input from receptor is within normal range and outputs commands if needed
Effector structure that receives output from control center and produces a response to alter the controlled condition(the altered condition then “feeds back” to the receptor and is reevaluated)
Negative feedback system reverses a change in a controlled condition;returns controlled condition to normal and maintains homeostasis;most feedback systems in body are negative
Positive feedback system reinforces a change in a controlled condition;must be shut-off by an event outside the system;associated with events outside of routine homeostasis
Homeostatic Imbalances loss of equilibrium due to failure of one or more body components to perform homeostatic functions
Disorder any abnormality of body structure or function
Symptoms subjective, non-observable functional abnormalities
Signs measurable or observable changes in body structure or function
Disease illness characterized by recognizable set of signs and symptoms; alters body structures and functions in characteristic ways
Diagnosis distinguishing one disease or disorder from another
Anatomical position standardized body position for directional relationships; standing, facing observer, arms down, palms facing forward
Prone lying face down
Supine lying face up
Anatomical landmarks know common names and anatomical terms
Directional terms describe relative positions of body parts
Anterior (front)
Posterior (back)
Ventral (towards belly)
Dorsal (towards back)
Superior (above)
Inferior (below)
Cranial (towards head)
Caudal (towards tail)
Medial (towards midline
Lateral (away from midline)
Proximal (near attachment or beginning
Distal (away from attachment,or near end) refer to appendages or some organs and systems
Superficial (near surface)
Deep (away from surface)
Planes and Sections planes are imaginary flat surfaces which cut 3-D objects into sections allowing 2-D viewing of internal structures
Sagittal plane vertical or longitudinal plane dividing a body or organ into right and left sides
Midsagittal equal sides of a sagittal plane
Parasagittal unequal side of a sagittal plane
Frontal (coronal) plane vertical or longitudinal plane dividing body or organ onto front and back portions
Transverse plane horizontal or cross-sectional plane dividing body or organ into upper and lower portions or cross-sections
Oblique plane passes through a body or organ at an angle between the transverse plane and a vertical or longitudinal plane
Body Cavities protect contents and allow contents to change in size and shape
Dorsal body cavity near dorsal (posterior) surface; has 2 subdivisions; lined by membranes called meninges
Cranial cavity surrounded by cranial bones; contains brain
Vertebral (spinal) canal surrounded by vertebrae; contains spinal cord
Ventral body cavity near ventral (anterior) surface; has 2 main subdivisions separated by the diaphragm
Thoracic cavity above diaphragm; surrounded by ribs, sternum, spine
mediastinum connective tissue dividing thoracic cavity midsagitally
pericardial cavity within the mediastinum; contains heart
2 pleural cavities contain the lungs
Abdominopelvic cavity below diaphragm; surrounded by spine, pelvis,and muscle wall; contains liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen, bladder, and reproductive organs; may be subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities
Serous membranes of ventral cavity thin membranes which produce slippery fluid to reduce friction; parietal layer lines body walls,visceral layer lines organs(viscera); these membranes also form mesentery, ligaments, omentum
Parietal pleura lines pleural cavity walls
Visceral pleura lines lungs
Parietal pericardium lines pericardial sac
Visceral pericardium lines heart
Parietal peritoneum lines abdominopelvic cavity walls
Visceral peritoneum lines viscera of abdominopelvic cavity
Retroperitoneal organs (behind the parietal peritoneum) Most organs lie within body cavities, but a few (kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and portions of the intestines and major vessels) lie against the posterior body wall covered by the parietal peritoneum
Abdominopelvic Regions divisions of abdominopelvic cavity often used in anatomical studies; 4 gridlines divide cavity into 9 regions
Abdominopelvic Quadrants divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity often usedby clinicians; 2 gridlines divide cavity into 4 quadrants
Chemical level atomic and molecular level
Cellular level cells are the basic structural and functional units of life
Tissue level groups of cells and the materials surrounding them;work together to perform specific functions
Organ level structures composed of 2 or more tissue types;have specific functions and usually recognizable shapes
System level collection of related organs and tissues with specific function (some organs belong to more than one organ system)11 organ systems of human
Anatomy science of body structure; originally revealed by dissection
Physiology science of body function
Created by: laurarliz



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