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A & P 2

Anatomy Physiology 2

QuestionAnswer
Occurs between Cells of same type through physical contact, transmitted though gap junctions by exchange of ions and molecules. Direct Communication
Use of paracrine factors to transfer information from cell to cell locally through extracellular fluid. Paracrine Communication
Uses Hormones to coordinate cellular activities in tissues in distant parts of body through circulatory system. Endocrine Communication
Hormones alter operations of target cells in what 3 ways? 1. stimulate synthesis of enzyme by activating genes in nucleus 2. Increase or decrease rate of synthesis by affecting rate of transcription or translation 3. turn an existing enzyme or membrane channel "on" or "off" by changing shape or structure
Neurotransmitters send "messages" across synaptic clefts to appropriate receptors. Synaptic Communication
Glandular secretory cells that release secretions into the extracellular fluid. Endocrine cells
Relatively small molecules that are structurally related to amino acids. A.k.a biogenic amines, are synthesized from tyrosine and tryptophan. Amino Acid Derivatives (group of hormones)
Includes Thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland, and epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, which are known as catecholamines. Tyrosine derivatives
Primary hormone derivative is melatonin produced by the pineal gland. Tryptophan derivatives
Synthesized as prohormones- inactive molecules that are converted to active hormones either before or after they are secreted. Composed of chains of amino acids. Peptide hormones (group of hormones)
More than 200 amino acids long and have carbohydrate side chains. Includes TSH, LH, FSH from adenohypophysis. Glycoproteins
Includes ADH, Oxytocin, GH, prolactin, all hormones secreted by heart, hypothalamus, thymus, digestive tract, pancreas, and neurohypophysis, and most of adenohypophysis Other group of peptide hormones
Has two classes, eicosanoid derived from acachidonic acid (20-carbon fatty acids) and steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol) Lipid Derivatives ( group of hormones)
small molecules with a five-carbon ring at one end, importan paracrine factors that coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes in extracellular fluids. Eicosanoids
Eicosanoids released by activated white blood cells (leukocytes). Important in coordinating tissue response to injury or disease Leukotrienes
Eicosanoids produced in most tissues of the body to coordinate local cellular activities sometimes converted to thromboxanes and prostacyclins which also have strong paracrine effects. Prostaglandins
Lipids structurally similar to cholesterol. Released by male and female reproductive organs(androgens by testes), estrogen and progestins by ovaries), corticosteroids (by cortex of suprarenal glands, calcitriol (kidneys). Steroid Hormones
Hormones are inactivated when..... 1. Diffuses out of the bloodstream and binds to receptors on target cells 2. absorbed and broken down by cells of the liver or kidneys 3. broken down by enyzmes in plasma or interstitial fluids
These hormones remain in circulation much longer because when they enter bloodstream more than 99 percent of them become attached to special transport proteins.
Created by: alex8lee