Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

A & P 2

Anatomy Physiology 2

Occurs between Cells of same type through physical contact, transmitted though gap junctions by exchange of ions and molecules. Direct Communication
Use of paracrine factors to transfer information from cell to cell locally through extracellular fluid. Paracrine Communication
Uses Hormones to coordinate cellular activities in tissues in distant parts of body through circulatory system. Endocrine Communication
Hormones alter operations of target cells in what 3 ways? 1. stimulate synthesis of enzyme by activating genes in nucleus 2. Increase or decrease rate of synthesis by affecting rate of transcription or translation 3. turn an existing enzyme or membrane channel "on" or "off" by changing shape or structure
Neurotransmitters send "messages" across synaptic clefts to appropriate receptors. Synaptic Communication
Glandular secretory cells that release secretions into the extracellular fluid. Endocrine cells
Relatively small molecules that are structurally related to amino acids. A.k.a biogenic amines, are synthesized from tyrosine and tryptophan. Amino Acid Derivatives (group of hormones)
Includes Thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland, and epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, which are known as catecholamines. Tyrosine derivatives
Primary hormone derivative is melatonin produced by the pineal gland. Tryptophan derivatives
Synthesized as prohormones- inactive molecules that are converted to active hormones either before or after they are secreted. Composed of chains of amino acids. Peptide hormones (group of hormones)
More than 200 amino acids long and have carbohydrate side chains. Includes TSH, LH, FSH from adenohypophysis. Glycoproteins
Includes ADH, Oxytocin, GH, prolactin, all hormones secreted by heart, hypothalamus, thymus, digestive tract, pancreas, and neurohypophysis, and most of adenohypophysis Other group of peptide hormones
Has two classes, eicosanoid derived from acachidonic acid (20-carbon fatty acids) and steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol) Lipid Derivatives ( group of hormones)
small molecules with a five-carbon ring at one end, importan paracrine factors that coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes in extracellular fluids. Eicosanoids
Eicosanoids released by activated white blood cells (leukocytes). Important in coordinating tissue response to injury or disease Leukotrienes
Eicosanoids produced in most tissues of the body to coordinate local cellular activities sometimes converted to thromboxanes and prostacyclins which also have strong paracrine effects. Prostaglandins
Lipids structurally similar to cholesterol. Released by male and female reproductive organs(androgens by testes), estrogen and progestins by ovaries), corticosteroids (by cortex of suprarenal glands, calcitriol (kidneys). Steroid Hormones
Hormones are inactivated when..... 1. Diffuses out of the bloodstream and binds to receptors on target cells 2. absorbed and broken down by cells of the liver or kidneys 3. broken down by enyzmes in plasma or interstitial fluids
These hormones remain in circulation much longer because when they enter bloodstream more than 99 percent of them become attached to special transport proteins.
Created by: alex8lee



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards