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PHC 6002 Exam 2 Material UF

Diarrhea is defined as _(#)_ or more ______ _______ within _(#)_ hours. 3; liquid/watery stools; 24
What distinguishes dysentery from diarrhea? Blood &/or mucous is present in the stool.
Persistent diarrhea lasts at least _(#)_ _____. 14 days/2 weeks
Rotavirus, E. coli, Cholera, and Campylobacter all cause ________. Watery diarrhea
Shigellosis, Amebiasis, and E. coli 0157:H7 all cause ________. Dysentery
1 in _(#)_ children who contact diarrhea will die from it. 200
Of all infectious diseases, diarrhea has the greatest effect on _____. This is because (4 things). growth; (1)reduction in appetite (2)altered feeding practices (3)decreased absorption of nutrients (4)High prevalence
3 ways to treat dehydration: (1)ORT (2)Antibiotics sometimes (3)Food ASAP
(7) Clinical features of Cholera (1)Rice-watery stool (2)marked dehydration (3)poor urine output (4)Projectile vomiting (5)NO fever/abd pain (6)Muscle cramps (7)Shock
(5) Clinical features of E. coli (1)Watery stool (2)Dehydration (3)Fever (4)Abd Pain (5)Vomiting
4 Major groups of E. coli (1)enterotoxigenic ETEC (2)enteropathogenic EPEC (3)Enteroinvasive EIEC (4)Enteroaggregative EAgg EC
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) symptoms (3) (1)severe bloody diarrhea (2)abd cramps (3)NO or little fever
(5) Clinical features of salmonella (1)Acute fever (2)abd pain (3)diarrhea (4)nausea (5)Sometimes vomiting. Lasts 4-7 days
_________ caused the most recent salmonella outbreak, peaking in 1992. It's decline has set the scene for reemergence of _______. S. enteritidis; S. typhimurium
What is the most common form of severe diarrhea? Rotavirus
Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) spread easily. Name 4 examples. MRSA, VREnterococci, C diff, reistant gram neg rod bacteria (pseudomonas)
Contact Precautions Help prevent the spread of infections transmitted by direct or indirect contact. Gown and gloves req to have contact. MRSA, VRE, Resistant Gram negative rods, lice, shingles. Special attention to isolation, designated patient care items, careful cleaning
Droplet Precautions Help prevent the spread of infections transmitted by coughing/sneezing. Must wear a gown and gloves and mask to have contact with a patient or anything the patient has had contact with.Used for resistant organism pneumonia, influenza, Neisseria meningitis
Enteric Precautions Prevent the spread of C. diff, a spore-forming bacterium. A spore is a protective coat that allows an organism to survive high heat, dryness, radiation, some cleaning products. Must wear gown and gloves. Must wash hands with soap and water when leaving.
Special Precautions Help prevent the spread of VRE (transmitted by direct or indirect contact). Must wear a gown and gloves to enter the room. VRE persists in the environment so special attention to isolation, designated patient care items, and careful cleaning required
Airborne Isolation Help prevent the spread of infections transmitted by air. Must wear a special mask (N95) to enter the room. Used for Tuberculosis (TB) and rule-out TB. Requires a negative airflow room
Strict Isolation Help prevent the spread of infections transmitted both by contact (direct or indirect) and by air. Must wear a gown, gloves and mask to enter the patient’s room. Used for chickenpox or disseminated shingles
Compromised Host Precautions Special category used to protect patients who are immunocompromised No one should enter the room if they have a fever. If someone has a cough or runny nose they should wear a mask to enter the room
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPA1) H5 and H7 (H5N1 case fatality rate 42%-63%)
How does the flu kill? Primary Pneumonia- Viral. Secondary Pneumonia- Bacterial. Both congest airways and restrict breathing. Contributes to death from stroke, cancer, heart attacks
Influenza can be spread through _____. The incubation period is typically _____ days. Infectious period is ______ days from clinical onset. droplet nuclei or airborne; 1-3; 3-5
____________ cause epidemic disease in humans. Influenza A and B
Antigenic Drift Minor changes in surface antigens, leads to new variant.
Antigenic Shift Major change (RNA reassortment), leads to a new subtype (ie H5N1)
Annual epidemics are the result of antigenic ______. Pandemics are the result of antigenic ______. drift; shift
Which is more likely to lead to a survival advantage, Ant. Drift or Shift? Ant Drift
Influenza Nomenclature A/Moscow/10/99/(H3N2) (StrainType/Location1Isolated/LabStrain#/Year1Isolated/(Subtype))
H1N1 Transmission Droplets & fomites
WHO Pandemic Phases 1-3) Predominantly animal infections. Few human infections. 4)Sustained human to human transmission 5-6)Pandemic. Widespread human infection Post-Peak)Possibility of recurrent events Post-Pandemic)Disease activity at seasonal levels
1918-1919 Spanish Flu was a Type __ virus (_), with _____ deaths worldwide; ______ deaths in the US A; H1N1; 20-50million; 500,000
1957-1958 Asian(?) Flu was a Type __ virus (_), with _____ deaths in the US A; H2N2; 70,000
1968-1969 Hong Kong Flu was a Type __ virus (_), with _____ deaths in the US A; H3N2; 34,000
How many deaths occur anually in the US from seasonal flu? 26,000
1977 Russian Flu (_) H1N1
HPV types ____ and ____ are high risk strains. _______ HPV associated cancers occur annually 16; 18; 24,900
Who has HPV (% of Americans of reproductive age) (# currently infected) 75%; 20 million
PID is caused by _____ & ______. It in turn can cause _____ & ________. Chlamydia; Gonorrhea; infertility; ectopic pregnancies
HPV symptoms occur _____ after exposure. 1-20 months
Symptoms of chlamydia occur _____ after exposure. 1-3 weeks
Chlamydia: ___% of women and ___% of men are asymptomatic. 75; 50
Prevalence of chlamydia (in America overall) (by sex) (by age) 422 per 100,000; 2.6 times more prevalent in women; Most common in the 20-24 yo age group followed closely by 15-19 yo age group.
There are ______ new cases of gonorrhea each year in the US. It has an incubation period of _____. 700,000; 2-30 days
Hep A Fecal-oral transmission, self-limiting, low mortality
Hep B Blood, sexual, and perinatal transmission. Possible chronic and resolved cases Moderate to high mortality.
Hep C Blood, sexual, and perinatal transmission. Possible chronic and resolved cases Moderate to high mortality.
Hep D Blood, sexual, and perinatal transmission. Chronic cases. High mortality. REQUIRES co-infection with Hep B.
Hep F Fecal-oral transmission, self-limiting, low to moderate mortality. Mostly in Asia/Africa.
Hep C has an incubation period of ______. >20 years
Viral Time Bomb Hep C (180 million infected; 130 million chronic carriers)
AIDS includes all HIV infected people who have _____ CD4+ Tcells per cubic millimeter of blood _____________________________. <200; and/or has one of 26 opportunistic infections.
HIV __ subtype ___ is the dominant strain in the US. 1; B
Medications for the treatment of HIV focus on different steps in the _____________ process. Viral replication
In the US there is an estimated ____________ people living with HIV infection. Prevalence has _____ since 2003. 1,178,350; increased
Individuals who have HIV and are undiagnosed are estimated to represent ____% of the total with HIV. 20
Nearly _____% of AIDS cases are in the South. 50
Global # of people living with HIV 33.3 million
Global AIDS deaths in 2009 1.8 million
There were _____ new global HIV infections a day in 2009. ____% were in low/mid income countries. _/_ were in children under 16. 7000; 97%; 1/7
Name the 4 key components of public health surveillance. 1)Ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of PH data 2)Used for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of PH practice 3)Timely dissemination 4)Application of data
Name 5 purposes of PH surveillance. To 1)assess public health status, 2)track conditions of PH importance, 3)define PH priorities, 4)evaluate PH programs, and 5)develop PH research
Created by: 1437437180