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Micro Final 6/12

How is gonorrheal conjuctivitis in newborns prevented? Crede Method- eyes of newborn are rinsed with 1% silver nitrate
What diseases does the DPT or DTaP immunize against? A. Dipthera B. Tetnus c.Pertusis
What is the characteristic lesion of anaerobic infections? Necrosis- dead tissue
Which specimens are likely to contain clinically significant anaerobes? a sample aspirated with needle and syringe or pus from a deep wound with a foul odor.
Which specimens are unacceptable for anaerobic culture? A. Swabs from surface wounds B. Coughed up sputum and stomach contents
What is the Gram stain of Neisseria? Gram negative diplococci
Where are Neisseria species normal flora? Throat, sputum
What does a direct smear of urethral discharge that is positive for gonorrhea look like? positive smear- intracellular gram negative diplococci
What must Neisseria have in the atmosphere to grow? CO2
What is the gram stain of Staphylococcus? Gram Positive in a cocci cluster
What is an enterotoxin? An exotoxin that cause gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Produced by S. aureus. It is a common cause of food poisoning.
What are some infections caused by S. aureus? A. Boils B. Pimples/ Acne C. Wounds/ Post op D.TSS E. HAI- Health care Associated Infection.(nosocomial)
Where is S. epidermidis normal flora? Skin, throat and vagina
What is the gram stain of Streptococcus? Gram Pos cocci chains
What does Strep require in the atmosphere to grow? CO2
Define alpha hemolysis Green halo surrounding colony hemolysis slight or incomplete
Define beta hemolysis Clear colorless halo
Define gamma hemolysis no change in blood surrounding colony
Which Lancefield group of the beta Streptococcus is the most pathogenic? Group A S. pyogenes
Which Lancefield group causes infection in newborns? Group B
What does GBS stand for? Group B Strep
What organism is the bacitracin disk test used on? Beta hemolytic strep
What are the several infections caused by Group A beta hemolytic Streptococci? A. Strep throat B. Scarlet fever C. AGN D. Rheumatic Fever (RF) E. Osteomyelitis F. meningitis G. acute endocarditis
What is an erythrogenic toxin? An exotoxin that causes a rash. Produced by Group A beta strep
What is droplet nuclei? Fine spray given off by nose and mouth
Where is Enterococcus normal flora and what kind of infection does it frequently cause? Intestine- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
What is the typical colony appearance of Streptococcus pneumonia? Gray, mucoid, translucent and alpha hemolytic
What disease does S. pneumoniae cause? Lobar pneumonia and otitis media(ear infections)
What ingredient converts liquid to a solid medium? Agar
Describe Selective media Uses dyes, antibiotics and others. Inhibts growth of certain organisms and permits growth of others. Used for fecal, urine, sputum, bacteria normally present inhibited so pathogens, if present, can be seen. EXAMPLE:strep augar
Describe differential media uses dyes, indicators and others Gives colonies of a particular organism a distinct and easily recognizable appearance EXAMPLE: E. Coli
Describe Enriched media Contains complex organic materials that certain fastidious organisms require to grow
What are the four solutions used to do a Gram stains? A. Crystal violet- primary stain B. Iodine- mordant- sticks in dye C. Acetone/alcohol- decolorizer- strips out dye D. Safranin-counter stain
What color is Gram positive? Purple
What color is Gram negative? Red
What shape are cocci? Round
What shape are bacilli? Rod Shape
What shape are spirilla? Spiral
Describe cell wall Varies in composition, accounts for different stain reactors. Rigid structure, maintains shape, some protection
Describe plasma membrane Semi permiable- regulates passage of materials in and out of cell wall
Describe nucleoid Area that stores genetic material. DNA and RNA. Not a true nucleus.
Describe a capsule A capsule is a sticky or gummy envelope secreted by some bacteria. Protects from phagocytosis associated with virulence mucoid growth on the augar
Describe flagella Aids in locomotion, propels cell
Describe spore/endospore Thick walled oval body. Resistant to adverse conditions, such as, heat, chemicals, drying, boiling for hours and freezing for 6 months
Define Aerobe Will grow in presence of free oxygen
Describe anaerobe Can not grow in presence of free oxygen. Obtains oxygen from other oxygen containing molecules
Describe facultative anaerobe
Define obligate anaerobe Can grow only in complete absence of free oxygen
What pH is best for bacterial growth? 7- tolerates narrow range 6-8
What is the best time to use bacterial cultures for lab studies? 18-24 hrs 37 degrees Celsius
What is sterilization? Completely destroys all living organisms
What is pathogen? Disease causing organism
What is bactericidal Causes death of bacteria
What is bacteriostatic/Bacteriostasis? Inhibits growth or multiplication of bacteria
What is Disinfection/ disinfectant? Eliminates many or all pathogens. Effective against vegetative not spores
What is Antiseptic? Prevents or combats infection on the body
How does incineration sterilize items? It burns them up and reduces to ashes
What does the autoclave use to sterilize items? High heat and moisture/ steam under pressure
Define normal flora Present in certain body regions at all times. Do not normally cause diseae
Define virulence Ability to cause disease. Can it penetrate, spread, kill RBC's, Kill WBC
Define opportunist Can not invade tissue of healthy individual, can become pathogenic if body resistance is lower
How are specimens labeled? Patient name, source or site, date, time, physician name
Which samples would you put in the refrigerator? Urine in sterile container, sputum and rectal swab
Which samples would you keep at room temp? Throat culturette, anaerobic wound, urine preservative
What samples are put in the incubator? Any specimen on media
What are three purposes of transport media? A. Keeps swab from drying out B. Maintains favorable pH C. Prevents active metabolism
What type of urine sample is used for culture? Clean catch midstream
What must be avoided when the patient collects a stool sample? water from toilet and urine
How is rickettsiae transmitted? By insect bites- arthropod vectors
What does H influenzae cause? Meningitis in children
What is the name of the immunization given to prevent infection with H influenzae? Hib
What does Bordetella pertussis cause? Whooping cough
What does the P in the DPT immunize against? pertusis
What are enteric bacilli? Gram neg causes infection in intestines
What are the characteristics that all Enterobacteriaceae have? a. all gram neg bacilli b.aerobic c.motile or nomotile d.all oxidase neg e. all ferment glucose
What grows on an EMB plate? only gram neg
What is inhibited from growing on EMB? gram pos
What can E. Coli cause? a. UTI b. pyelonepheitis- infection of kidney c. infant diarrhea
How is Shigella transmitted? Oral Fecal route
What does Salmonella typhosa cause? typhoid fever
How is S. typhosa transmitted? Oral fecal route
What is the Gram Stain of Salmonella typhosa? Gram Neg Bacilli
Which type of urine sample is required for a urine culture? clean catch- midstream-sterile container. Refrigerate until plated
What does each of the following urine culture results mean? a. less than 10,000 CFU/ml b. 10,000-100,000 CFU/mL c.greater than 100,000 CFU/mL d. many species a. contamination- NF b. possible infection c. infection/ UTI d. appears to be contaminated/ repeat culture if clinically indicated
What does AFB stand for? AFB= Acid Fast Bacilli
What does Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause? an example of AFB- causes TB
How is Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted? droplet nuclei
what are characteristics of spirochetes? a. spiral b. move by spinning/ turning corkskrew c.stain poorly or not at all with Gram d. does not grow outside the body
What does Treponema pallidum cause? Syphilis
What are two ways to test for syphilis? a. antibodies against it b. exudate from lesion/ dark field microscopy
what is the first clinical sigh on syphilis? chancre- Ulcer
what does Borreila burgdorferi cause and how is the disease transmitted? Lyme disease, deer and rodent tick
What is mycology? study of fungi
What is ringworm or tinea? superficial fungal infection of skin, hair or nails
How are superficial funfal infections checked for? KOH potassium hydroxide lactophend blue
What can Candida albicans cause? a. Thrush b. vaginitis
What are parasites? must live on other living matter. eukaryotic
What is an O & P test? Ova and parasite in stool
How do you perform a cellulose tape collection for Enterobius vermicularis? causes pinworm - eggs picked up from skin of parianal region with scotch tape
What size are viruses compared to other living organisms? They are the smallest living organisms
Viruses are described as what kind of parasite? And what does that mean? Obligate intracellular parasite Must reproduce within living cells
What is the structure of a virus? DNA or RNA core with a protein coat
How are viral diseases often diagnosed? depends on the virus- patient symptoms and direct testing
Define latency? State of being inactive can recur
Define oncogenicity transform a normal cell into a cancer cell
Define teratogenicity Causes physical defects in the embryo fetus
What is HSV type 1? And symptoms? Herpes simplex virus Type 1- fever, blisters or cold sores
What is HSV type 2? and symptoms? Herpes simplex vrius Type 2- genital herpes- STD
What is VZV? What does it cause? Varicella Zoster Virus- Chicken Pox
What is EBV? What does is cause? Epstein bar virus- Mononucleosis
What is HBV? How is it spread? Hepatitis B virus- Blood and blood products, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk
What is HPV? What does it cause? Human Papilloma Virus- causes warts, genital warts, cervical cancer
What is Morbillivirus? causes measles
What is Rubella? geman measles
What is HIV? How is it spread? Human Immunodeficiency Virus- AIDS- Blood and blood products, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk
What is HAV? How is it spread? Hepatitis A Virus- Oral- Fecal route
Which viruses are transmitted by the oral-fecal route? HAV
Which viruses does the MMR vaccinate against? Measles, Mumps and Rubella
Created by: lecopple1