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A & P 1-Exam #2

Anat. & Phys. 1: Exam #2

Name the four major components of the integumentary system? Skin, hair, nails, and glands.
What are the functions of the skin? Protection, sensation, temperature regulation, vitamin D production, and excretion.
What are the two major layers of the skin? Epidermis and dermis.
What is the structure, function, and location of the hypodermis? S: Composed of areolar and adipose tissue. F: Stores fat, anchors skin loosely to underlying structures, shock absorber, and insulator. L: Not actually part of the skin. Also known as subcutaneous or superfical fascia.
What is the structure of the epidermis (or outermost protective layer of skin)? Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that has four cell types.
What are the four cell types of the epidermis? Keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerham's cells, and Merkel cells.
What is the structure, function, and location of the keratinocyte cells of the epidermis? S: Arise from stratum basale from continuous mitosis and connected by desmosomes. F: Produce keratin (protein) L: Most of the epidermal cells.
What is the structure, function, and location of the melanocyte cells of the epidermis? S: Spider-shaped cells that contain melanosomes. F: Protect the nucleus from UV radiation. L: On the "sunny" side of the cell. Found in the stratum basale layer.
What are the Langerham cells of the epidermis? Epithelial dendritic disc that arise from the bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. It's a type of macrophage that extends spider-like processes around surrounding keratinocytes.
What are the Merkel cells of the epidermis? Look like a spiky hemisphere that meet up with Merkel's disc (which are sensory nerve endings).
What are the 5 layers of thick skin (palms, fingertips, and soles of feet) from deepest to most superficial. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.
What are the 4 layers of thin skin from deepest to most superficial? Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum.
What does the stratum basale layer consist of? It's the deepest layer and attached to the dermis. It's a single layer of mitotic keratinocytes. Made up of 10-25% of melanocytes with the occasional Merkel cell.
What does the stratum spinosum layer consist of? Several layers think. Contain mostly melanocytes and Langerhan cells.
What does the stratum granulosum layer consist of? 3-5 cell layers thick with nucleus and organelles that disintegrate. Accumulate Keratin and Glycolipid granules. Glycolipids waterproof the skin.
What does the stratum lucidum layer consist of? Few rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes.
What does the stratum corneum layer consist of? 20-30 cell layers thick with thick plasma membranes which allow for waterproofing and abrasion/penetration protection. This is the overcoat of the body.
Which layer of the skin is mitotic? Stratum basale.
What are the two layers of the dermis? Papillary and reticular layer.
What does the dermis, or hide, of the skin contain? Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and sensory receptors. Also contains hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands that are all derived from the epidermis but reside in the dermis.
What is contained in the papillary layer of the dermis? 20% dermal tissue, comprised of areolar connective tissue, and forms dermal papillae (which looks like corrugated cardboard) and lays atop dermal ridges. Gives rise to finger prints.
What is contained in the reticular layer of the dermis? 80% of the dermal layer. Made up of dense irregular collagenous connective tissue. Contains cleavage and flexure lines?
What are cleavage lines? Collagen fibers that run parallel. Important to surgeons.
What are flexure lines? Where dermis is tightly secured to underlying structures. Creates dermal folds such as in the wrists, palms, fingers, etc.
What is the structure, function, and location of sudoriferous eccrine (merocrine) glands? S: Open externally on skin surface. 99% water. F: Releases sweat by exocytosis. Reduces heating of the body. L: Found everywhere, especially palms, soles, and forehead.
What is the structure, function, and location of sudoriferous apocrine glands? S: Ducts empty into hair follicles. Odor is caused when bacteria comes into contact with sweat. F: Unknown, but may be analogous to sexual scent glands of animals. Begin to function at puberty. L: Axillary and anogenital regions.
What is the structure and location of sudoriferous ceruminous glands? S: Similar to apocrine glands, but modified. L: Ears-secretes cerumen (earwax).
What is the fourth kind of sudoriferous gland? Mammary glands.
What is the difference between basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma? Which has the best and which has the worst prognosis? Basal cell is the least malignant and most common of the three. It effects the stratum basale layer. Squamous cell prognosis is good if caught early. Effects the keratinocytyes. Melanoma is the most dangerous and is cancer of the melanocytes of the skin.
What is the ABCDE rule for skin cancer detection? Asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter (>6mm), and elevation.
What causes burns? Tissue damage that is caused by heat, electricity, radiation, or chemicals.
What is the "rule of 9s"? Body is divided into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body area + 1% for the area around the genitals.
What is a 1st degree burn? Only the epidermis is damaged and usually heals in 2-3 days. Example is sunburn. Symptoms are pain, redness, and swelling. Partial thickness burn.
What is a 2nd degree burn? Epidermis and upper part of the dermis is damaged. Has same symptoms of 1st degree burns + blisters. Heals in 3-4 weeks. Partial thickness burn.
What is a 3rd degree burn? Full thickness burn, which means it damages both the epidermis and dermis. Appears gray/white, cherry red, and blackened.
What makes burning critical? If over 25% of the body is 2nd degree burns, if over 10% of the body is 3rd degree burns, and if there is 3rd degree burns to the face, hands, or feet.
In terms of development, where do the epidermis and dermis arise from? Epidermis-ectoderm and Dermis-mesoderm.
What is the structure, function, and location of perichondrium skeletal cartilage? S: Connective tissue. F: Source of blood vessels and nerve supply. Resists cartilage expansion when compressed. L: Covering all cartilage, except articular cartilage.
What doesn't articular cartilage have perichondrium? Because joints have to articulate (move) and it would cause pain if there were perichondrium in those areas.
What are the two types of growth for cartilage? Appostional and interstitual.
What is appositional cartilage growth? Growth occurs from the outside. Cartilage forming cells in the perichondirum secrete.
What is inerstitial cartilage growth? Occurs from within (such as with pregnant women). Lacunae bound chondrocyte divide and secret new matrix, expanding from within.
What is the appendicular skeleton? Includes the upper and lower limbs and the pelvic and shoulder girdles.
What is the axial skeleton? Skull, vertebral column, and rib cage.
What are the four classification of bones based on their shape? Long, short, flat, and irregular bones.
What are long bones? Longer than they are wide. Have a shaft + 2 ends. Includes all bones of the limbs (except ankle, wrist, and patella).
What are short bones? Cube shaped. Examples are the carpals and tarsals. Includes sesamoid bones which are short bones that develops within a tendon (patella).
What are flat bones? Contain 2 layers of compact bone and 1 layer of spongy bone. Thin, flattened, and curved. Examples are the sternum, scapulae, ribs, and skull bones.
What are irregular bones? Weird shaped bones that don't fit into any other category. Examples are the vertebrae and hip bones.
What are the 5 functions of bones? Support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation, and electrolyte balance.
What is hematopoiesis? Red marrow in the bones produce blood cells.
What classifies a bone as mature? Contains Lamellae. Comprised of compact bone and cancellous bone (spongy bone that contain trabeculae).
What classifies a bone as immature? Does NOT contain lamellae. Woven bone first formed during fetal development and then remodeled. Also formed during fracture repair.
What is the microstructure of compact bone? Structural unit is the Osteon, which involves Lamellae (forms rings of osteons), Central (Haversian) canal, Perforating (Volksmann's) canal, Lacunane (which contain osteocytes), and Canaliculli.
What is the microstrucure of spongy bone? Consists of trabeculae, which form along lines of stress.
What are the three types of bone cells and their functions? Osteoblasts (immature bone cells that build bone). Osteoclasts (responsible for bone resorption- breaking down bone). Osteocytes (mature bone cells that live in lacunae and build matrix).
What comprises the organic matrix of bone? Collagen fibers, proteoglycans and glycoproteins, and osteoid (which is 1/3 of ground substance and provides flexibility and tensile strength).
What comprises the inorganic matrix of bone? Hydroxyapatities, or mineral salts such as calcium and phosphates. Resists compression and is 2/3 of ground substance.
What is the diaphysis of the long bone structure? Shaft which contains the Medullary cavity (contains yellow marrow).
What is the epiphysis of the long bone structure? Ends of the bone which contains the epiphyseal (or growth) plate and is covered with articular cartilage.
What is the periosteum membrane of the long bone structure? Cover the external surface of the bone. Contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. Anchored to the bone by Sharpey's fibers (which are made up of dense irregular connective tissue).
What are the two layers of the periosteum membrane of the long bone structure? Fibrous layer, which is the superficial layer made of dense irregular connective tissue. The Osteogenic layer, which is made of bone forming and bone destroying cells (osteoblasts-form cells and osteoclasts-destroy cells).
What is the endosteum membrane of the long bone structure? Lines the meduallary cavity and the trabecculae.
Where is red bone marrow found? In flat bones in adults, the ilium, and the head of the femur and humerous.
Body Main part.
Head Enlarged, often rounded end.
Neck Constriction b/t head and body.
Margin or border Edge.
Angle Bend.
Ramus Branch off the body beyond the angle.
Condyle Smooth, rounded articular surface.
Facet Small, flattened articular surface.
Line of linea Low ridge.
Crest or crista Prominent ridge.
Spine Very high ride.
Process Prominent projection.
Tubercle Small, rounded bump.
Tuberosity or tuber Knob, larger than tubercle.
Trochanter Tuberosities on the proximal femur.
Epicondyle Upon a condyle.
Lingula Flat, tongue-shaped process.
Hamulus Hook-shaped process.
Cornu Horn-shaped process.
Foramen Hole.
Canal or meatus Tunnel.
Fissure Cleft.
Sinus or labyrinth Cavity.
Fossa General term for depression.
Notch Depression in the margin of a bone.
Fovea Little pit.
Groove or sulcus Deep, narrow depression.
What is intramemebranous ossification? When a bone develops from a fibrous membrane. Occurs from 8 weeks after conception to 2 years of age.
What are the steps of intramembranous ossification? Ossification center forms in center of the membrane, bone matrix forms, formation of woven bone periosteum, and periosteum lays down compact bone and red marrow forms.
What is endochondral ossification? When a bone develops from a hyaline cartilage model. Occurs fro 8 weeks after conception to 2 years of age.
What bones does endochondral ossification form? All bones of the skeleton from base of the skull down (except clavicle).
What are the steps of endochondral ossification? Perichondrium becomes periosteum, bone collar forms under periosteum, 3 C's (cartilage calcifies, chondrocytes die, and cavity forms), spongy bone forms, diaphysis elongates, and medullary cavity forms.
When bone ossification is complete, what hyaline cartilage is left? Articular cartilage and growth plates.
How do bones grow after 2 years of age? Grow in length at growth plates using interstital growth method and they grow in thickness via appositional growth.
What 2 vitamins are important for bone growth? Vitamin D & C.
What causes rickets and osteomal acia? A deficiency of Vitamin D.
What causes scurvy? A deficiency of Vitamin C.
What hormones are important for bone development and growth? Growth hormone from anterior pituitary, thyroid hormone, and sex hormones.
What is osteogenesis? Formation of bony skeleton (in embryos).
What is ossification? Bone growth which continues through adulthood.
What is remodeling? Occurs throughout life in response to the stresses we place on our bones.
What is Wolff's Law? Bone is laid down in lines of stress.
What 2 hormones are involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis? Calicitonin and Parathyroid hormone (PTH).
What gland secretes calcitonin? Thyroid gland.
What gland secretes PTH? Parathyroid glands.
What stimulates calcitonin secretion? Rise in blood calcium levels.
What stimulates PTH secretion? Decline in blood calcium levels.
What is the target organ of PTH and what are the effects? Bones- causes osteoclast activity which releases calcium into the blood. This increases blood calcium levels.
What is the target organ of calcitonin and what are the effects? Takes calcium from the blood and deposits it into the bones. This then decreases blood calcium levels.
What is a non-displaced frature? Bones retain their normal position.
What is a displaced fracture? Bone ends are out of normal alignment.
What is a complete fracture? Bone broken all the way through.
What is an incomplete fracture? Bone is not broken all the way through.
What is a linear fracture? Along the long axis.
What is a transverse fracture? Perpendicular to long axis.
What is an open (or compound) fracture? Bone penetrates the skin.
What is a closes (or simple) fracture? Bone does not break the skin.
What are the stages of fracture repair? Hematoma forms, fibrocartilage callus forms, body callus forms, and bones remodel.
What is an articulation or joint? Place where two bones come together, freely moveable to little or no apparent movement, and structure is correlated with movement.
How are articulations or joints named? According to the bones or parts united at the joint. According to only on the the articulating bones. By Latin equivalent of common name.
What are the three structural characteristics of joints? Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial. Based on major connective tissue type that binds bones.
What are the three functional characteristics of joints? Synarthrosis (nonmoveable; most fibrous joints are this), Amphiarthrosis (slightly movement; most cartilaginous joints are this), and Diarthrosis (freely moveable; synovial joints are this).
What are the characteristics and 3 types of fibrous joints? United by connective tissue, have no joint cavity, and move little or none. 3 types are sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.
What are the characteristics and 2 types of cartilaginous joints? Unite two bones by means of cartilage. Types are synchondrosis (ex: epiphyseal plates) and symphyses (ex: intervertebral discs).
What are the characteristics and 6 types of synovial joints? Has a joint cavity and joint capsule. Allow considerable movement. Also have bursae (which are pockets of synovial fluid). The 6 types are plane or gliding, saddle, hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, and ellipsoid.
What are the four major types of movement? Gliding, angular, circular, and special movements.
What are the subtypes of angular movement? Flexion and extension and abduction and adduction.
What are the subtypes of circular movement? Rotation, pronation and supination, and circumduction.
What are the types of special movements? Elevation and depression, protraction and depression, opposition and reposition, and inversion and eversion.
What are the two types of range of motion? Active and passive.
What influences range of movement? Shape of articular surfaces forming joint, amount and shape of cartilage covering surfaces, strength and location of ligaments and tendons, locations of muscles associated with joint, amount of fluid in and around joint, amount of use/disuse of joint, etc
What are the 3 joint disorders? Arthritis (osteoarthritis), joint infections (i.e. Lyme disease), and gout (metabolic disorders of unknown cause).
Created by: reed0370



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