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A&P Theory Midterm

Chapters 12-15

The most abundant are sodium and chloride ion. Plasma Electrolytes
Patients with this condition have a tendency to bleed, due to a deficiency of platelets. Leukemia
A test in which the percent of various types of WBC in a blood sample is determined. Differential WBC Count
The most common type of WBC in a blood sample Neutrophil
Its primary function is to act against foreign substances Lymphocytes
They are the most active phagocytic cells among the WBCs Neutrophils & Monocytes
This is important for the production of RBCs because it is used in the synthesis of DNA Vitamin B
This condition is caused by an increased blood concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cyanosis
In the adult, RBC are produced primarily here Red Bone Marrow
This greenish pigmnet is formed when hemoglobin molecules are decomposed Biliverdin
This is a condition in which RBCs contain abnormal hemoglobin caused by mutation Sickle Cell Disease
Biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature. RBC
Abnormally low WBC Count Leukopenia
The percentage of RBC is a sample of human blood, also known as hematocrit 45%
This term is used to describe the stoppage of bleeding by any one of several means Hemostasis
This can be prevented by treating RH-negative mothers with anti-Rh agglutinin Erythroblastosis Fetalis
This blood test is used to evaluate blood clotting Prothrombin
Iron is found in this molecule Hemoglobin
These are cytoplasmic fragments of cells Platelets
Its most important action is helping to maintain blood osmotic pressure Plasma Albumins
This hormone, released from the kidneys, promotes the production of RBCs Erythropoietin
A normal WBC count 4,000-11,000 cells/microliter of blood
This serves as an enzyme in the blood coagulation mechanism Thrombin
These RBCs have antigens A and B on their surfaces Type AB blood
As a platelet plug forms, platelets release __________, a vasoconstricting substance Serotonin
__________is the most common blood type in the US and has anti-A AND anti-B antibodies Type O Blood
Vitamin B12 is important for the production of RBCs because it is utilized in the synthesis of __________ DNA
A RBC is ________, containing no nucleus Anuclear
People with type AB blood are often called universal___________ Recipients
_________ is an agranular WBC Monocyte
Nonprotein nitrogenous substnaces include what 4 things? Amino Acids, Urea, Uric Acid, & Creatine
Blood is a type of ___________ tissue Connective
Plasma contains _________, and serum does not Fibrinogen
A clot that breaks loose and travels in the blood flow is called a(n)________ Embolus
These two substances are useful for dissolving blood clots Urokinase & Streptokinase
The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change from fibrinogen to _________ Fibrin
_________ is the most abundant type of plasma protein Albumin
__________,_________, and ________ are required in the formation of a blood clot Calcium, Prothrombin, & Fibrinogen
A _________ ________ is formed when our bodies form the fibroblasts Platelet plug
The clumping of RBCs that occurs when transfused blood is of incompatible type is called_________ Agglutination
_________ usually account for the smallest percentage of WBCs in a blood sample Basophils
When the left ventricle contracts, blood passes into the ________ Aorta
The SA node relays nerve impluses into the AV bundle of the interventricular septum and ___________ is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of the heart SA Node
The ________ of capillaries with a tissue varies directly with the tissue's rate of __________ Density; Metabolism
Because net inward pressure in venular capillary ends, is less that net outward pressure at the arteriolar ends of capillaries, more fluid ________ the capillaries than ___________ Leaves; Returns
Arteries are strong, elastic vessel that carry blood ________ _________ the heart Away from
Osmotic pressure forces molecules in the blood _______ _________ the capillary walls Back into
Venules contines from capillaries to form _______, which carry blood back to the atria Veins
Veins function as blood reservoirs whenver BP _________ by venous walls constricting Decreases
The BP in the systemic arteries is greatest during ___________ ____________ Ventricular Systole
Contracting skeletal muscles help ________ blood to the heart Return
The Aorta is part of the _________ circuit Systemic
This occurs as the bicuspid vavles and tricuspid valves close Ventricular Contraction
This indicates the impulses that travel from the SA node to the Purkinje Fibers P-Q Interval
The greater the length of myocardial fibers, the greater the force with which they contract Starling's Law
This is the depolarization of atrial muscle fibers P Wave
Having excess of this ion will cause a decreased rate and decreased force of contraction Potassium
These stimulate smooth muscle in artery and arteriole walls to contract Sympathetic branches of the ANS
This drains from the wall of the heart into the right atrium Coronary Sinus
The space between the parietal and visceral pericardial membranes Pericardial Cavity
This divides near the brim of the pelvis to form the right and left Common Iliac arteries Descending Aorta
Tissue that forms a loose-fitting sac around the heart Fibrous Pericardium
The longest vein in the body Great Sphenous Vein
Mass of interconnected cardiac muscle cells that act as a group Functional Syncytium
This consists of fibrous connective tissue in the interventricular septum and encircling the heart valves Skeleton of the Heart
These are in the blood capillaries and HELP to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood Plasma Proteins
This is self-exciting tissue SA Node
Fibers that secrete this substance, carry parasympathetic impulses and cause the heart rate to decrease Acetylcholine
Blood from the face and scalp are drained by this blood vessel External Jugular Vein
This sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs Pulmonary Circuit
A patient presenting with an abnormally slow heart rate is also said to be experiencing Bradycardia
The repolarization of ventricular muscle fibers in the myocardium T Wave
Blood vessel that serves as a blood reservoir Vein
Pain from a blockage in an artery that supplie the heart Angina Pectoris
Blood vessels whose walls are thin enough to allow exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluid Capillaries
This supplies blood to the Myocardium Coronary Arteries
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries, and the Heart consist together is what body system Cardiovascular System
The correct sequence of parts that function to carry cardiac impulses (Conduction Pathway) SA Node - AV Node - AV Bundle (Bundle of His)- Purkinje Fibers
Obesity, Smoking, Hypertension, and Lack of physcial activity are risk factors of what disease specific to the Cardiovascular System Atherosclerosis
These are four branches of the Aorta Brachial Sephalic Artery, Coronary Arteries, Left Subclavian Artery, and Celiac Artery
A normal immune response requires these cells T Cells and B Cells
This makes DNA from viral RNA, in HIV infection Reverse Transcriptase
This release histamine, as a result of an allergen-antibody reaction Mast Cells
This is an example of a specific body defense mechanism Immunity
Region of a lymph node through which blood vessel pass Hilium
Two collecting ducts that drain the lymphatic trunks Thoracic & Right Lymphatic
Most abundant type of immunoglobin IgG
A vein is most similar to _______ of the Lymphatic System Lymphatic Vessel
This is where excess fluid is kept from accumulating in tissue spaces Lymphatic System
A substance that can stimulate a primary immune response, but is unable to produce the symptoms of a disease Vaccine
Foreign or "non-self" proteins that trigger immune responses Antigens
A blood reservoir, responds to low oxygen concentration, contains many machrophages, and resembles a large lymph node divided into nodules Spleen
These are in the gamma globulin factions of plasma proteins Immunoglobulins
During the primary immune response, B cells give rise to these cells Plasma cells
A group of proteins that cells produce in response to viruses Interferon
Cells in a lymph node that engulf and destroy danaged cell, foreign substances, and cellular debris Macrophages
Movement of lymph through lymphatic vessels is caused largely by this Muscular Activity
Neutrophils and Monocytes are the most active phagoctyic cells in ________ ___________ Circulating blood
Type of resistance that is a response to contracting an infections disease Naturally acquired active Immunity
A tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic capillary Lymph
Helper T cells release this substance Cytokines
A group of lymphocytes that originate from a single early cell Clone
Cells that are primarily responsible for immunity Lymphocytes & Macrophages
These are responsible for immunity T Lymphocytes
This disease infects macrophages HIV
Disease-causing agents such as bacteria and viruses Pathogens
These are four autoimmune disease Systemic Lupis Erythematosus, Diabetes 1 Mellitus, Juvinile Rheumatoid Arthritis, & Multiple Sclerosis
AIDS is caused by a virus that attacks ________ _________ DNA Enzymes
This is located in the mediastinum behind the sternum Thymus
An immunoglobulin molecule is an antibody that B Cells ___________ Secrete
In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed towards cells of ________ The body (Self)
The spleen may _______ older RBCs Destroy
During the primary immune response, B cells _______ ________ to plasma cells Give rise
As a result of the allergen-antibody reaction, mast cells release this substance Histamine
An injection of antibodies produces ________ immunity Passive
A newborn infant may have some defenses against digestive and respiratory disturbances because of IgA obtained from its _______ _________ Mother's Milk
In active immunity, a person becomes immune to a pathogen as a result of? Having a disease
Following a primary immune response, the B cells and T cells that remain dormant but are able to respond to antigens encountered in the future are called __________ __________ Memory Cells
The formation of lymph increases as a result of increasing ___________ pressure in tissue fluid Osmotic
A patient that has had surgery to remove lymph nodes attached to a cancerous right breast in the axillary region may experience that her right arm becomes ___________ Edematous
This is caused by deficiency of Lactase Lactose Intolerance
Secretion is stimulated by the presence of proteins and fats in the small intestine Cholecystokinin (CCK)
The diaphragm lowers during this event Defacation Reflex
One of its major functions is to reabsorb water from chyme Large Intestine
This is often caused by the conversion of trysinogen to trypsin Acute pancreatitis
Due to weakness of the diaphragm Hiatal Hernia
Sphincter muscle located between the small intestine and the larger intestine Ileocecal Valve
Secreted in an inactive form and digests proteins Enzymes
This results due to poor nutrition from lack of nutrients or failure to use them Malnutrition
Usually composed of cholesterol Gallstones
Location of the vomiting center in the brain Medulla Oblongata
Secreted by stomach cells and increases the secretion by the gastric glands Gastrin
Composed of peritoneal membrane Greater Omentum
This would most likely affect digestion of lipids Liver Damage
This is a double layered fold of peritoneum that suspends portions of the small intestine Mesentery
This is a process by which bile breaks down fat globules Emulsification
The percentage of calories in a person's diet derived from fats 30%
This is characterized by a yellow-ish tinge to the tissues, due to an increased blood concentration of bile pigments Jaundice
This is necessary for the normal absorption of Vitamin B12 from the small intestine Intrinsic Factor
This is a protein splitting enzyme found in pancreatic juice Trypsin
Constituent of bile with digestive functions Bile Salts
Valves that controls the movement of food between the stomach and the small intestine Pyloric Sphincter
These are large fixed, phagocytes in the lining of the hepatic sinusoids Kupffer Cells
Plasma Proteins contain less than adequeate amounts of essential ______ __________ Amino Acids
This secretes hydrochloric acid Parietal Cells in Gastric Glands
This stimulates the release of pancreatic fluid Secretin
This extends from the mouth to the anus Alimentary Canal
This aids in the mixing movements in the alimentary canal by alternately contracting and relaxing nonadjacent segments Segmentation
Teeth that are best adapted for biting off relatively large pieces of food Incisors
Due to their location, swelling may interfere with breathing and swallowing Palatine Tonsils
This system mechanically and chemically breaks down food for nutrient absorption Digestive System
This digests carbhydrates Salivary Amylase
Microorganisms promote this by metabolizing carbohydrates and releasing by-products that are acidic Dental cavities
Lymph is where fat moleculs with longer chains of carbon atoms are transported from the ________ ________ Small Intestine
This is a projection of the soft palate Uvula
This occurs in the digestive tract from the pharynx to the anus Peristalsis
This forms the urea, stores vitamin D, destroys damages RBCs, and forms glucose from non-carbohydrates Liver
What is the correst sequence for the layers within the wall of the alimentary canal from inside to outside Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscular, and Serosa
In this event the soft palate, larynx, and the hyoid bone are raised, the epligottis closes off the top of the trachea, the tongue presses against the uvula & soft palate, and the muscles pull the pharynx upward toward the food Swallowing reflex
CCK, is a hormone released from the intestinal mucosa by the presence of fats, and stimulates the gallbladders to _________ and release bile into the duodenum Contract
Peristalsis mixes food with digestive enzymes throught the ____________ alimentary canal Entire
The cecum, is located at the beginning of the ____________ colon Ascending
___________ a fat-soluble vitmain is not destroyed by cooking Vitamin E
Bile is composed of HCL, pepsin, mucus, and the _________ factor in the small intestine Intrinsic
The movement of chyme through the small intestine is increased by parasympathetic impulses and is inhibited by ________ impulses Sympathetic
The main part of the stomach is called the ______________ Body
The gallbladder is connected to the common bile duct by the ______ duct Cystic
Food passing from the stomach through the small intestine first passess in to the duodenum, then the jejunum, and lastly the ____________ Ileum
Lymph _________- fat molecules with longer chains of carbon atoms away from the small intestine Transports
The epithelial cells that form the inner linging of the small intestine are replaces every ________ days Few
Bile salts function as digestive enzymes to break down __________ Carbohydrates
Created by: axdavidson



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